Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change have an obligation to report emissions from international marine bunker fuels. In addition, Parties are required to provide an explanation on how they distinguish between domestic marine emissions and international bunker emissions in their national inventory reports, and to explain how consumption of international marine bunker fuels was estimated and separated from the domestic consumption. Assessments of CO2 and NOx emissions by ships, mainly use either a "top-down approach" or a rough "bottom-up approach". In our research we will explore possibilities of combining existing databases in Belgium to assess CO2, SO2 and NOx emissions from a bottom-up approach. By doing so we expect to improve Belgian emission data from ships entering and leaving Belgian ports.
- Project Description
The aim of this project is to assess the methodology used in Belgium to monitor air pollution from ships (CO2, NOx, SO2 only), whether there is any quality assurance/control as regards data, what problems administrations may encounter, to verify whether Belgium is able to comply with the relevant international conventions (Annex VI of MARPOL and UNFCCC), and to suggest improvements for Belgian data reporting.
Firstly the actual reporting and monitoring methodology of CO2, SO2 and NOx emissions from ships will be studied, based upon emission estimations in international literature and taking into account the UNFCCC standards, in particular IPPC guidelines, further developments under the Kyoto Protocol and the work within the IMO. The review will lead to an assessment of the different methodologies used. In particular the reliability and/or the limitations of the emission factors and the calculation methods will be assessed. This task will also include a brief analysis of the comparability of UNFCCC emissions data with other reporting frameworks for atmospheric emissions and bunker fuel statistics, such as for example the International Energy Agency.
Secondly, the methodology of monitoring, reporting and estimating ships’ emissions of CO2, SO2 and NOx in Belgium will be evaluated. Problems will be identified and proposals for improvement will be suggested, taking into account new reporting and monitoring options for SO2 and NOx emissions from ships via bunker fuel delivery notes, upon entry into force of Annex VI MARPOL 73/78. Various databases (Port State Control, Pilotage, Vessel Traffic Service, Sea Ports and others) with ships’ particulars and databases generating bunker fuel statistics (Federal Energy Administration, Customs and others) will be analyzed and classified according to following parameters: 1. quality of data and potentials for quality control and estimating SO2 and NOx emissions from ships; 2. short time frames to deliver basic data (preferable electronic); 3. multi-purpose reporting; 4. potentials for geographical emission allocations, such as national (Belgian ports, Belgian part of the North sea) – international; 5. potential for improvement (technical, cost and policy) and connections with other databases; 6. user friendliness.
Thirdly, a fine tuning of CO2, SO2 and NOx emissions from ships in the Belgian part of the North Sea will take place for the year 2002 as example. In contrast to international studies using simple “top-down” approaches, this project will use a “bottom-up” approach in order to identify SO2 and NOx emissions from ships in the Belgian ports, the Belgian Territorial Sea (TS) and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Therefore we need to identify vessels sailing to and from Belgian seaports, their technical particulars and average sulphur content, the fuel consumption (daily), sailing days, … in order to gain more detailed information on a smaller geographical scale (grid) compared to international studies, to calculate those emissions and to be able to review emissions factors and calculation methods.