# Difference between revisions of "Coastal hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes and engineering"

## Introduction

This article presents an overview of the Coastal Wiki content (December 2016) on coastal hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes, long term geomorphological change, climate impacts and coastal engineering (articles in blue). This content was initiated by the ENCORA themes 5 and 8.

The article also indicates missing topics (articles in red). Please help us fill these gaps by expanding and claiming these missing topics.

For some gaps alternative websites are indicated, in particular:

## Coastal hydrodynamics

Coastal Wiki articles

Coastal Wiki gap

• Hydrodynamic processes and equations - introduction to the mathematical formulation of major physical processes that should be addressed in models for different types of coastal systems (sediment transport formulas are addressed in other articles)

### Waves

Coastal Wiki articles

Incomplete articles

• Wave transformation needs expansion with general introduction to propagation of random waves into shallow water, wave breaking and dissipation, breaking criteria, radiation stress, shoaling, setdown, wave breaking, roller energy, setup, sediment transport, observations, empirical formulas, models
• Statistical description of wave parameters needs expansion on wave spectrum, Rayleigh distribution, intra-wave interaction
• Edge waves definition should be expanded: periods incident waves, reflection, dissipation, propagation, coastally trapped waves

Coastal Wiki gaps

• Types of ocean wave - progressive, standing, surface, internal, gravity, capillary, wind wave, swell, tide, planetary or Rossby (coriolis+horiz plane), tsunami, ship waves. Diagram of types of wave, showing the relationships between wavelength, wave frequency, forces and energy
• Wave theory – introduction, linear wave theory, Stokes wave theory, solitary waves, Cnoidal waves, wave asymmetry and skewness
• Wind wave generation – introduction to underlying processes, fetch, saturated wave field, wave-wave interaction, wave spectrum
• Wave refraction, diffraction and reflection - introduction to underlying principles, morphological consequences of convergence and divergence of wave rays (shoreline orientation, accretion, erosion), morphodynamic feedback (relation with bar dynamics) and nearshore modelling
• Wave transformation in the nearshore - introduction to propagation of random waves into shallow water, wave breaking and dissipation, breaking criteria, radiation stress, sediment transport, observations, empirical formulas
• Wave-current interaction
• Swash – introduction to swash characteristics, importance for sediment exchange between land and sea, uprush, downrush, in/exfiltration, infragravity swash, sediment transport, morphodynamic feedback, beach berm, modelling, practical formulas for different beach types
• Wave runup – theory, models, wave overtopping, practical formulas
• Tsunamis - introduction to tsunami generation, propagation, shoaling, runup, dissipation, modelling, observations, empirical formulas
• Wave impact – lift force on structures, impact, practical formulas
• Ship waves - wash or wake, Kelvin wave pattern, supercritical wash
• Wave modelling - operational, coastal, computational fluid dynamics, smoothed particle hydrodynamics
• Infragravity waves - introduction to characteristics of infragravity waves, their generation, interaction with nearshore morphology, their impact on beach accretion/erosion, some practical examples and formulas

External references

### Tides

Coastal Wiki articles

Incomplete articles

• Tides needs revision
• Tidal prediction needs expansion : harmonic method, tidal constituents, specific examples
• Storm surge definition needs expansion: storm surge prediction, storm surge modelling, storm surge impact

Coastal Wiki gaps

• Tides in the oceans
• Tidal asymmetry – introduction to tidal topographically induced wave distortion in shallow coastal systems
• Tidal bores- introduction to tidal wave propagation in shallow water, bore development and propagation/dissipation, bore types, relation with channel geometry and bed roughness, observations, modelling, practical formulas, implications for sediment transport

External references

### Currents

Coastal Wiki articles

Incomplete articles

• Longshore current – definition needs expansion: generation of longshore currents, theory, practical formulas
• Rip currents - definition needs expansion: introduction to characteristics of rip-cells, their importance, occurrence, hydrodynamics, morphodynamic feedbacks, influence of tides, storms, modelling, practical formulas, implications for coastal management

Coastal Wiki gaps

• Wind driven currents – sea surface entrainment, turbulence, Ekman theory
• Density-driven currents – buoyancy, stratification, turbulence damping, entrainment, modelling
• Turbulence – generation, coherent flow structures, dissipation, Kolmogorov theory, spectrum, shear stress, diffusion, mixing length

## Transport and mixing processes

Coastal Wiki articles

Incomplete articles

• Stratification – needs expansion: stability criteria, internal waves, Kelvin-Helmholz instability, turbulence damping, internal friction, mixing

Coastal Wiki gaps

External references

## Flood risk

Coastal Wiki articles

Coastal Wiki gaps

## Coastal sediments and sediment transport

Coastal Wiki articles

Incomplete articles

• Sediment - needs update with links to specific topics

Coastal Wiki gaps

• Sediment classification - grain size, gravel, sand, boulder, shape, flat, round, type, cohesive, non-cohesive
• Graded beds – sorting processes, seabed armouring, erosion, deposition, modelling
• Sediment budget coastal systems
• Boundary layer processes and sediment transport - introduction to the boundary layer concept (waves, current, waves+current), turbulence, temporal-spatial scales, bed-flow interaction, velocity and acceleration skewness, flat/rippled/sloping beds, sediment transport processes, onshore-offshore asymmetry, observation, modelling, practical formulas
• Current ripples and dunes – formation processes, theoretical background, modelling
• Wave ripples - introduction to characteristics of wave-induced ripples, conditions of occurrence, seabed instability, morphodynamic feedback processes, wavelength selection, pattern formation and evolution, initial state, defects, final state
• Cross-shore sediment transport - shoaling zone, breaker zone, swash zone
• Aeolian transport – from beach to dunes, influence of grainsize, fetch, tides, moisture, vegetation, dune formation, modelling
• Estuarine sedimentation and turbidity maximum - introduction to characteristics of turbidity maxima, underlying processes (tidal asymmetry, estuarine circulation), impact on sedimentation and water quality, conditions of occurrence, relation with dredging and reclamation in estuaries, observations, modelling

External references

## Coastal morphology

### Wave-dominated coasts

Coastal Wiki articles

Incomplete articles

• Rocky shore morphology – needs expansion to cliff morphology, sediment input, shore platforms, stacks, headlands, etc.
• Beach berm – expand definition and add section on berm formation

Coastal Wiki gaps

• Typology of coastlines – introduction to different coastline classification schemes, accretional, erosional coasts, beaches, estuaries, inlets, deltas, cliffs, mudflats, dunes, stacks, headlands, blowholes
• Wave-dominated coast general introduction: barriers, beaches, breaker bars, intertidal bars and runnels
• Macrotidal coasts - introduction to: characteristics of macrotidal coasts (compared to micro- or mesotidal coasts), variability, major involved hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes, resilience, response to sea-level rise
• Mud coasts (or Fluvial-dominated coasts ) - introduction to the particular characteristics of mud coasts (compared to sand coasts) and the processes responsible for their formation, evolution and maintenance, threats and response to sea-level rise
• Typology of mangrove coasts – morphological-ecological interaction
• Equilibrium coastal profile – empirical models, theoretical background, applicability
• Coastal barrier formation - introduction to characteristics of coastal barriers, their importance, processes responsible for their formation, evolution and maintenance, threats to existing coastal barriers (human interventions and sea-level rise), good management practices
• Breaker bar dynamics – development, evolution and decay of breaker bars in the surf zone, underlying morphodynamic processes and modelling
• Coastal profile response to storms – profile steepening, breaker bar dynamics (migration, formation)
• Shoreline planform – pocket beach equilibrium planform, shoreline rotation
• Beach-dune interaction - introduction to major processes of coastal dune formation and erosion, and practical modelling concepts
• Reef systems

External references

### Deltas, estuaries and lagoons

Coastal Wiki articles

Incomplete articles

• Estuaries and tidal rivers – introduction to different types of estuaries
• Mudflat – needs expansion of existing definition, mudflat morphology and morphodynamics (interaction morphology-tide-waves-biology), link to saltmarsh morphology
• Fjords – definition needs to be expanded: formation process, hydrodynamics
• Coastal squeeze – article must be revised and expanded: introduction to the concept of coastal squeeze, influential factors, how does it happen, consequences, examples, how to avoid, how to mitigate, lessons from practice
• Characteristics of muddy coasts - needs revision and expansion to include wave influence and interactions ecology-hydrodynamics-morphology.

Coastal Wiki gaps

External references

### Coastal morphology measuring techniques

Coastal Wiki articles

### Coastal morphodynamic modelling and self-organisation

Coastal Wiki articles

Coastal Wiki gaps

• Coastline instability - introduction to conditions for coastline instability, occurrence, characteristics of unstable coastlines, observations, processes, morphodynamic feedback, modelling, practical formulas, implications for coastal management
• Morphodynamic selforganisation processes – principles of self-organisation and examples
• Rhythmic shoreline features – introduction to shoreline features that can be generated by morphodynamic feedback, such as megacusps, crescentic bars, transverse bars, large-scale shoreline features, large-scale instabilities associated to the littoral drift
• Large-scale bedforms in shelf seas - introduction to the characteristics of tidal ridges and shoreface-connected ridges, conditions and (feedback)processes for their formation, evolution and maintenance, some examples and idealised models
• Nearshore bed forms and bed roughness - introduction to the physical background and practical methods for representing the influence of bed forms and bed roughness in the nearshore zone in numerical models of waves, currents, mixing and sediment transport
• Sand waves - introduction to characteristics of sand waves, their practical importance, conditions and major (feedback)processes for their formation, evolution and maintenance, modelling, some examples and simple rules
• Bio-geomorphology of the coastal zone – morphological and ecological patterns in the coastal zone resulting from the interaction between biotic and physical processes

### Coastal erosion

Coastal Wiki articles

Coastal Wiki gaps

• Shoreline prediction – practical (data-driven) methods, applicability, storms, implication for coastal management
• Decadal coastal prediction - introduction to (data-driven) methods for predicting coastal evolution over decadal time scale

External references

### Long-term morphodynamics and climate change

Coastal Wiki articles

Incomplete articles

• Geomorphology – needs expansion to a general article linking to more specific articles
• Climate change - extend existing definition to general introduction to the topic

Coastal Wiki gaps

## Coastal protection and engineering

Incomplete articles

• Dredging needs expansion with overview article of techniques and impact

Coastal Wiki gaps

External references