Difference between revisions of "Effects of climate change on the Mediterranean"

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===Microplankton diversity===
 
===Microplankton diversity===
[[Plankton]] is a collective term for all organisms living in the water column that lack their own means of active movement or whose range of movements are more or less negligible in comparison to the movement of the water mass as a whole. Plankton organisms can range in
+
[[Marine_Plankton|Plankton]] organisms can range in size from a few metres for large jellyfish and salp colonies to less than a micrometre for bacteria. Within the [http://www.marbef.org/projects/marplan/index.php MarPLAN] project the [[biodiversity]] of eukaryotic marine single-celled plankton organisms was studied in order to answer the question “In what ways can global change affect microplankton?”
size from a few metres for large jellyfish and salp colonies to less than a micrometre for
 
bacteria. Within the [http://www.marbef.org/projects/marplan/index.php MarPLAN] project the [[biodiversity]] of eukaryotic marine single-celled plankton organisms was studied in order to answer the question “In what ways can global change affect microplankton?”
 
  
  
 
To understand plankton distribution and changes therein, we first need to know how
 
To understand plankton distribution and changes therein, we first need to know how
diverse it is. Diversity can be hidden within an easily identifiable morphologically defined species. Although this [[species]] may be considered cosmopolitan, it can possibly be divided into several separate species each with a different distribution patters.
+
diverse it is. Diversity can be hidden within an easily identifiable morphologically defined species. Although this [[species]] may be considered cosmopolitan, it can possibly consist of several separate species, or [[population|populations]], each with a different distribution patter.
 
For example, [http://www.marbef.org/projects/marplan/index.php MarPLAN] discovered that the
 
For example, [http://www.marbef.org/projects/marplan/index.php MarPLAN] discovered that the
cosmopolitan species [http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=233761 ''Fibrocapsa japonica''] in fact consists of two different species. The second one was discovered in the Adriatic Sea.
+
cosmopolitan species [http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=233761 ''Fibrocapsa japonica''] in fact consists of two different species. The second one was discovered in the [[Mediterranean Sea and Region, including Adriatic Sea|Adriatic Sea]].<ref name="ma">[http://www.marbef.org/documents/glossybook/MarBEFbooklet.pdf Heip, C., Hummel, H., van Avesaath, P., Appeltans, W., Arvanitidis, C., Aspden, R., Austen, M., Boero, F., Bouma, TJ., Boxshall, G., Buchholz, F., Crowe, T., Delaney, A., Deprez, T., Emblow, C., Feral, JP., Gasol, JM., Gooday, A., Harder, J., Ianora, A., Kraberg, A., Mackenzie, B., Ojaveer, H., Paterson, D., Rumohr, H., Schiedek, D., Sokolowski, A., Somerfield, P., Sousa Pinto, I., Vincx, M., Węsławski, JM., Nash, R. (2009). Marine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning. Printbase, Dublin, Ireland ISSN 2009-2539]</ref>
 
<P>
 
<P>
 
<BR>
 
<BR>
 
<P>
 
<P>
  
===Phytoplankton===
+
===Global change and phytoplankton===
 +
[[Image:20.JPG|thumb|right|100px|<div style="text-align: center;">
 +
''Ceratium sp.''</div>]]
  
In the temperate zones, many [[phytoplankton]] species form blooms during restricted periods
+
In the temperate zones, many [[phytoplankton]] species form blooms during restricted periods of the year. Global warming caused some species to bloom earlier in certain places, and to shift the distribution of these blooms towards the poles. New species may appear in regions, partly through [[Non-native species invasions|introduction]] (for example, via ballast water dumping) and partly through polewards range expansion of warm-water species.  
of the year. Global warming caused some species to bloom earlier in certain places, and to shift the distribution of these blooms tends towards the poles. New species may appear in
 
regions, partly through introduction (for example, via ballast water dumping) and partly through polewards range expansion of warm-water species.  
 
  
Several MarPLAN research partners collaborated to assess these trends in the dinoflagellate genus [http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=109506 ''Ceratium''].
+
Several MarPLAN researchers collaborated to assess these trends in the [http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=146202 dinoflagellate] genus [http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=109506 ''Ceratium''].
Over the last century, several species of
+
 
the genus Ceratium have disappeared
+
Over the last century, several ''Ceratium'' species have disappeared from study sites in Villefranche sur Mer and Naples, or have become far less common, while new dinoflagellate
from study sites in Villefranche sur Mer
 
and Naples, or have become far less
 
common, while new dinoflagellate
 
 
species have recently appeared.
 
species have recently appeared.
 +
 +
[[Image:19.JPG|thumb|left|150px|<div style="text-align: center;">
 +
''Emiliania huxleyi.''</div>]]
 +
Another driver of global change is the increased concentration of CO<sub>2</sub> in the atmosphere, which results in a higher CO<sub>2</sub> concentration in the upper layers of the ocean. This might seem a good thing for phytoplankton. However, there is a less favourable side-effect: with increasing CO<sub>2</sub> in the seawater, [[Acidification_of_the_oceans|the acidity increases]] (the pH drops). As the acidity of seawater increases, it will be more difficult to produce the mineral calcium carbonate. This can cause problems for phytoplankton species that utilise calcium carbonate as a construction material for their cell walls. The coccolithophorid [http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=115104 ''Emiliania huxleyi''] is one such species: it forms discs of calcium carbonate called coccoliths, which appear to provide protection to the cell.<ref name="ma">[http://www.marbef.org/documents/glossybook/MarBEFbooklet.pdf Heip, C., Hummel, H., van Avesaath, P., Appeltans, W., Arvanitidis, C., Aspden, R., Austen, M., Boero, F., Bouma, TJ., Boxshall, G., Buchholz, F., Crowe, T., Delaney, A., Deprez, T., Emblow, C., Feral, JP., Gasol, JM., Gooday, A., Harder, J., Ianora, A., Kraberg, A., Mackenzie, B., Ojaveer, H., Paterson, D., Rumohr, H., Schiedek, D., Sokolowski, A., Somerfield, P., Sousa Pinto, I., Vincx, M., Węsławski, JM., Nash, R. (2009). Marine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning. Printbase, Dublin, Ireland ISSN 2009-2539]</ref>
 +
<P>
 +
<BR>
 +
<P>
 +
 +
===Harmful phytoplankton blooms===
 +
 +
Many phytoplankton species produce toxins or otherwise constitute a nuisance to other species, including humans (see also: [[Chemical_ecology#Chemical_ecology_and_phytoplankton|here]] and [[Functional_metabolites_and_macroalgal-herbivore_interactions|here]]). Such species (for example, ''Fibrocapsa japonica'') are harmful and, when they appear in large numbers, form [[harmful algal blooms]] (HABs). Global change may cause increasing numbers of HABs to appear in [[coastal area|coastal regions]].<ref name="ma">[http://www.marbef.org/documents/glossybook/MarBEFbooklet.pdf Heip, C., Hummel, H., van Avesaath, P., Appeltans, W., Arvanitidis, C., Aspden, R., Austen, M., Boero, F., Bouma, TJ., Boxshall, G., Buchholz, F., Crowe, T., Delaney, A., Deprez, T., Emblow, C., Feral, JP., Gasol, JM., Gooday, A., Harder, J., Ianora, A., Kraberg, A., Mackenzie, B., Ojaveer, H., Paterson, D., Rumohr, H., Schiedek, D., Sokolowski, A., Somerfield, P., Sousa Pinto, I., Vincx, M., Węsławski, JM., Nash, R. (2009). Marine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning. Printbase, Dublin, Ireland ISSN 2009-2539]</ref>
 +
<P>
 +
<BR>
 +
<P>
 +
=== Global change and zooplankton ===
 +
 +
The appearance of [[zooplankton]] (copepods, planktonic larvae of [[meiobenthos]]) may be triggered by different factors: increased temperatures may affect the timing of appearance of certain species differently. If grazers such as planktonic larvae are out of phase with their food source they will starve and not make it into adulthood. Populations of [[benthic]] species which rely on zooplankton for [[nutrients]] may also decrease. These temporal changes, documented by [http://www.marbef.org/projects/deepsets/index.php DEEPSETS], have occurred within our lifetime.<ref name="ma">[http://www.marbef.org/documents/glossybook/MarBEFbooklet.pdf Heip, C., Hummel, H., van Avesaath, P., Appeltans, W., Arvanitidis, C., Aspden, R., Austen, M., Boero, F., Bouma, TJ., Boxshall, G., Buchholz, F., Crowe, T., Delaney, A., Deprez, T., Emblow, C., Feral, JP., Gasol, JM., Gooday, A., Harder, J., Ianora, A., Kraberg, A., Mackenzie, B., Ojaveer, H., Paterson, D., Rumohr, H., Schiedek, D., Sokolowski, A., Somerfield, P., Sousa Pinto, I., Vincx, M., Węsławski, JM., Nash, R. (2009). Marine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning. Printbase, Dublin, Ireland ISSN 2009-2539]</ref>
 +
<P>
 +
<BR>
 +
<P>
 +
 +
===Global change and the deep Mediterranean===
 +
 +
DEEPSETS research has shown that the eastern [[Mediterranean_Sea|Mediterranean]] is subjected to periodical events which deliver large amounts of food to the sea floor. These events abruptly turn the ‘desert’ into an ‘oasis’. This was illustrated by the very high phyto-pigment concentrations in the Ierapetra Basin during 1993. These were linked to an increased flow of nutrient-rich water into the Cretan Sea after 1992, which resulted in an enhanced biological productivity and organic matter flux to the seabed. In 1993, this enhanced flux caused significant changes in the abundance and composition of the [[meiobenthos|meiobenthic]] assemblages as well as of the planktonic and [[Macrofauna|macrobenthic]] communities.<ref name="ma">[http://www.marbef.org/documents/glossybook/MarBEFbooklet.pdf Heip, C., Hummel, H., van Avesaath, P., Appeltans, W., Arvanitidis, C., Aspden, R., Austen, M., Boero, F., Bouma, TJ., Boxshall, G., Buchholz, F., Crowe, T., Delaney, A., Deprez, T., Emblow, C., Feral, JP., Gasol, JM., Gooday, A., Harder, J., Ianora, A., Kraberg, A., Mackenzie, B., Ojaveer, H., Paterson, D., Rumohr, H., Schiedek, D., Sokolowski, A., Somerfield, P., Sousa Pinto, I., Vincx, M., Węsławski, JM., Nash, R. (2009). Marine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning. Printbase, Dublin, Ireland ISSN 2009-2539]</ref>
 +
<P>
 +
<BR>
 +
<P>
 +
 +
==Global change and fishes==
 +
 +
Reliable tools have been developed to detect declining species, isolated populations
 +
and exotic species. Climate change is thought to cause [[Ecosystem_and_species_shifts_and_extinctions|range shifts]] of marine fish species and local and global [[Species_extinction|extinctions]] are predicted, although the latter is yet to be observed.
 +
 +
Small [[pelagic]] fish species, in particular, have large population sizes and a high potential for [[Evolution#Gene_flow|gene flow]]. Therefore, they may respond rapidly to changes in physical oceanographic conditions. They have, for instance, shown large population fluctuations and local extinctions over glacial time-scales.<ref name="ma">[http://www.marbef.org/documents/glossybook/MarBEFbooklet.pdf Heip, C., Hummel, H., van Avesaath, P., Appeltans, W., Arvanitidis, C., Aspden, R., Austen, M., Boero, F., Bouma, TJ., Boxshall, G., Buchholz, F., Crowe, T., Delaney, A., Deprez, T., Emblow, C., Feral, JP., Gasol, JM., Gooday, A., Harder, J., Ianora, A., Kraberg, A., Mackenzie, B., Ojaveer, H., Paterson, D., Rumohr, H., Schiedek, D., Sokolowski, A., Somerfield, P., Sousa Pinto, I., Vincx, M., Węsławski, JM., Nash, R. (2009). Marine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning. Printbase, Dublin, Ireland ISSN 2009-2539]</ref>
 +
<P>
 +
<BR>
 +
<P>
 +
===Global change and sprat ===
 +
 +
[http://www.marbef.org MarBEF] presented a range-wide phylogeographic survey of European sprat ([http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=126425 ''Sprattus sprattus'']), based on a 530-base-pair sequence from mitochondrial DNA. This DNA region demonstrated the existence of genetically isolated populations in northern Mediterranean basins. MarBEF concluded that these populations, which have a significantly reduced genetic
 +
diversity, remain isolated because they can't maintain gene flow with other populations under the present physical oceanographic regime.
 +
 +
This result demonstrates the effects of past glacially-induced changes in physical oceanographic conditions on a cold-adapted small pelagic fish species. This species is now geographically isolated at its southernmost distribution limit, namely the northern Mediterranean.<ref name="ma">[http://www.marbef.org/documents/glossybook/MarBEFbooklet.pdf Heip, C., Hummel, H., van Avesaath, P., Appeltans, W., Arvanitidis, C., Aspden, R., Austen, M., Boero, F., Bouma, TJ., Boxshall, G., Buchholz, F., Crowe, T., Delaney, A., Deprez, T., Emblow, C., Feral, JP., Gasol, JM., Gooday, A., Harder, J., Ianora, A., Kraberg, A., Mackenzie, B., Ojaveer, H., Paterson, D., Rumohr, H., Schiedek, D., Sokolowski, A., Somerfield, P., Sousa Pinto, I., Vincx, M., Węsławski, JM., Nash, R. (2009). Marine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning. Printbase, Dublin, Ireland ISSN 2009-2539]</ref>
 +
<P>
 +
<BR>
 +
<P>
 +
 +
===Global change and river outflow===
 +
 +
Climate models predict increasing variance in rainfall, with increased frequency of
 +
droughts paralleled by unusual amounts of rainfall and floods. In anticipation of this, the
 +
[[Mediterranean Sea|Mediterranean region]] is now being subjected to extensive river damming, which can have far reaching impacts on coastal [[food web|food webs]]. For instance, the diets of the five most abundant flat fish species of the Gulf of Lions and their prey depend on river inputs. The [http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=127160 common sole] largely profits from the contributions from terrestrial organic matter, via their main prey: deposit-feeding [http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=883 polychaete worms]. Therefore inland climate changes may affect coastal marine food webs, through variation in river flow.<ref name="ma">[http://www.marbef.org/documents/glossybook/MarBEFbooklet.pdf Heip, C., Hummel, H., van Avesaath, P., Appeltans, W., Arvanitidis, C., Aspden, R., Austen, M., Boero, F., Bouma, TJ., Boxshall, G., Buchholz, F., Crowe, T., Delaney, A., Deprez, T., Emblow, C., Feral, JP., Gasol, JM., Gooday, A., Harder, J., Ianora, A., Kraberg, A., Mackenzie, B., Ojaveer, H., Paterson, D., Rumohr, H., Schiedek, D., Sokolowski, A., Somerfield, P., Sousa Pinto, I., Vincx, M., Węsławski, JM., Nash, R. (2009). Marine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning. Printbase, Dublin, Ireland ISSN 2009-2539]</ref>
 +
<P>
 +
<BR>
 +
<P>
 +
 +
== See also ==
 +
 +
[[Predicted biodiversity changes in the Mediterranean_Sea]]
 +
 +
[http://www.marbef.org/documents/newsletter/NwsNo7_Nov07.pdf The Mediterranean sea: its biodiversity and the impact of global warming]
 +
<P>
 +
<BR>
 +
<P>
 +
 +
==References==
 +
<references/>
 +
<P>
 +
<BR>
 +
[[Category:Coastal and marine ecosystems]] 
 +
[[Category:Climate change, impacts and adaptation]]
 +
[[Category:Mediterranean Sea‎]]
 +
[[Category: MarBEF Booklet]]

Latest revision as of 14:14, 3 August 2019

Global change and microplankton

Microplankton diversity

Plankton organisms can range in size from a few metres for large jellyfish and salp colonies to less than a micrometre for bacteria. Within the MarPLAN project the biodiversity of eukaryotic marine single-celled plankton organisms was studied in order to answer the question “In what ways can global change affect microplankton?”


To understand plankton distribution and changes therein, we first need to know how diverse it is. Diversity can be hidden within an easily identifiable morphologically defined species. Although this species may be considered cosmopolitan, it can possibly consist of several separate species, or populations, each with a different distribution patter. For example, MarPLAN discovered that the cosmopolitan species Fibrocapsa japonica in fact consists of two different species. The second one was discovered in the Adriatic Sea.[1]


Global change and phytoplankton

Ceratium sp.

In the temperate zones, many phytoplankton species form blooms during restricted periods of the year. Global warming caused some species to bloom earlier in certain places, and to shift the distribution of these blooms towards the poles. New species may appear in regions, partly through introduction (for example, via ballast water dumping) and partly through polewards range expansion of warm-water species.

Several MarPLAN researchers collaborated to assess these trends in the dinoflagellate genus Ceratium.

Over the last century, several Ceratium species have disappeared from study sites in Villefranche sur Mer and Naples, or have become far less common, while new dinoflagellate species have recently appeared.

Emiliania huxleyi.

Another driver of global change is the increased concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, which results in a higher CO2 concentration in the upper layers of the ocean. This might seem a good thing for phytoplankton. However, there is a less favourable side-effect: with increasing CO2 in the seawater, the acidity increases (the pH drops). As the acidity of seawater increases, it will be more difficult to produce the mineral calcium carbonate. This can cause problems for phytoplankton species that utilise calcium carbonate as a construction material for their cell walls. The coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi is one such species: it forms discs of calcium carbonate called coccoliths, which appear to provide protection to the cell.[1]


Harmful phytoplankton blooms

Many phytoplankton species produce toxins or otherwise constitute a nuisance to other species, including humans (see also: here and here). Such species (for example, Fibrocapsa japonica) are harmful and, when they appear in large numbers, form harmful algal blooms (HABs). Global change may cause increasing numbers of HABs to appear in coastal regions.[1]


Global change and zooplankton

The appearance of zooplankton (copepods, planktonic larvae of meiobenthos) may be triggered by different factors: increased temperatures may affect the timing of appearance of certain species differently. If grazers such as planktonic larvae are out of phase with their food source they will starve and not make it into adulthood. Populations of benthic species which rely on zooplankton for nutrients may also decrease. These temporal changes, documented by DEEPSETS, have occurred within our lifetime.[1]


Global change and the deep Mediterranean

DEEPSETS research has shown that the eastern Mediterranean is subjected to periodical events which deliver large amounts of food to the sea floor. These events abruptly turn the ‘desert’ into an ‘oasis’. This was illustrated by the very high phyto-pigment concentrations in the Ierapetra Basin during 1993. These were linked to an increased flow of nutrient-rich water into the Cretan Sea after 1992, which resulted in an enhanced biological productivity and organic matter flux to the seabed. In 1993, this enhanced flux caused significant changes in the abundance and composition of the meiobenthic assemblages as well as of the planktonic and macrobenthic communities.[1]


Global change and fishes

Reliable tools have been developed to detect declining species, isolated populations and exotic species. Climate change is thought to cause range shifts of marine fish species and local and global extinctions are predicted, although the latter is yet to be observed.

Small pelagic fish species, in particular, have large population sizes and a high potential for gene flow. Therefore, they may respond rapidly to changes in physical oceanographic conditions. They have, for instance, shown large population fluctuations and local extinctions over glacial time-scales.[1]


Global change and sprat

MarBEF presented a range-wide phylogeographic survey of European sprat (Sprattus sprattus), based on a 530-base-pair sequence from mitochondrial DNA. This DNA region demonstrated the existence of genetically isolated populations in northern Mediterranean basins. MarBEF concluded that these populations, which have a significantly reduced genetic diversity, remain isolated because they can't maintain gene flow with other populations under the present physical oceanographic regime.

This result demonstrates the effects of past glacially-induced changes in physical oceanographic conditions on a cold-adapted small pelagic fish species. This species is now geographically isolated at its southernmost distribution limit, namely the northern Mediterranean.[1]


Global change and river outflow

Climate models predict increasing variance in rainfall, with increased frequency of droughts paralleled by unusual amounts of rainfall and floods. In anticipation of this, the Mediterranean region is now being subjected to extensive river damming, which can have far reaching impacts on coastal food webs. For instance, the diets of the five most abundant flat fish species of the Gulf of Lions and their prey depend on river inputs. The common sole largely profits from the contributions from terrestrial organic matter, via their main prey: deposit-feeding polychaete worms. Therefore inland climate changes may affect coastal marine food webs, through variation in river flow.[1]


See also

Predicted biodiversity changes in the Mediterranean_Sea

The Mediterranean sea: its biodiversity and the impact of global warming


References