Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

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Definition of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA):
A written analysis of the predicted environmental consequences of a proposed development activity, including
  1. a description of the avoidable and unavoidable adverse environmental effects
  2. a description of alternatives to the activity which might be less harmful to the environment, together with the reasons why such alternatives were rejected; and
  3. a description of any required irreversible or irretrievable commitments of resources required by the proposed development activity
This is the common definition for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), other definitions can be discussed in the article