The water body is highly stratified with fresh/brackish water on top of a seawater bottom layer. The strong density gradient inhibits mixing with surface water. Due to slow water renewal in the bottom layer together with organic matter mineralization, the bottom layer is generally deprived of oxygen.
- Pinet P.R. 1998.Invitation to Oceanography. Jones and Barlett Publishers. p. 508
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fjord - Frédéric de Goldschmidt