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A list of all pages that have property "Definition" with value "A dense mass which blankets the substratum". Since there have been only a few results, also nearby values are displayed.

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     (A dense mass which blankets the substratum)
    • Traits:Mat  + (A dense mass which blankets the substratum.)
    • Traits:Forest  + (A dense stand of large plants in which the upper branches (trees) or laminae (macroalgae) overlap to form a canopy that shades the under story of flora and fauna.)
    • Traits:FeedingMethodBehaviour  + (A description of how the oganism gathers food, and from where)
    • Traits:LarvalSttlementSubstratum  + (A description of the preferred substratum for larval settlement)
    • Traits:ReproductiveSeason  + (A description of the season(s) or months of the year during which reproduction occurs)
    • Traits:VerticalBiologicalZone  + (A description of the vertical biological zone or zonation in which an organism resides. The zone is determined by depth, physical, chemical and biological factors.)
    • Traits:Saltmarsh  + (A flat, poorly drained coastal swamp inundated by most high tides (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:Budding  + (A form of asexual multiplication in which A form of asexual multiplication in which a new individual begins life as an outgrowth from the body of the parent. It may then separate to lead an independent existence or remain connected or otherwise associated to form a colonial organism (Barnes ''et al.'', 1993).lonial organism (Barnes ''et al.'', 1993).)
    • Traits:Fission  + (A form of asexual multiplication involving division of the body into two or more parts each or all of which can grow into new individuals (Barnes ''et al.'', 1993).)
    • Traits:Veliger  + (A free-swimming molluscan larva, characterized by lobed extensions of the peroral trochus (velum), larval shell and rudimentary foot (Stachowitsch, 1992).)
    • Traits:AscidianTadpole  + (A free-swimming tadpole-like larva of ascidians, characterized by a head (bearing internal organs and adhesive papilla) and tail (with notochord and neural tube) (Stachowitsch, 1992).)
    • Traits:HabitatModification  + (A general term to describe how the organism lives in or interacts with its habitat (adapted from BIOTIC, Bolam ''et al.'', 2013).)
    • Traits:Cave  + (A hollow normally eroded in a cliff (or vertical rock) with the penetration being greater than the width of the entrance (Hiscock, 1996).)
    • Traits:Pediveliger  + (A late veliger that is able to use its foot to crawl and provide temporary attachment)
    • Traits:Rataria  + (A later larval stage in siphonophores, composed of a floating colony with a disc-shaped float, and an elongated body surrounded by the rim of the growing disc (Stachowitsch, 1992))
    • Traits:Diplontic  + (A life cycle characterized by a diploid adult stage producing haploid gametes by meiosis, the zygote forming by fusion of a pair of gametes (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:Haplontic  + (A life cycle in which meiosis occurs in the zygote to produce the haploid phase but in which only the zygote is diploid (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:Strandline  + (A line on the shore composing debris deposited by a receding tide; commonly used to denote the line of debris at the level of extreme high water (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:EnclosedCoast  + (A marine inlet or harbour fully enclosed from the open sea except at the entrance, not normally open to the sea at two ends. The connection with the open sea is normally less restricted than is the case with lagoons (Hiscock, 1996).)
    • Traits:Cushion  + (A mass or pillow of soft material.)
    • Traits:Elevation  + (A measure of height above chart datum, recorded in metres)
    • Traits:BodySize  + (A measurement of the size of the organism.A measurement of the size of the organism. Note - the measurement used to express body size varies within taxonomic groups. For example, some disciplines measure diameter, others carapace length, total body length or wing span. Also body size can vary with gender and life stage. size can vary with gender and life stage.)
    • Traits:Width  + (A measurement or extent of something from side to side; the lesser of two or the least of three dimensions of a body (OED) Note: For width you can specify the measurement type (minimum, maximum, average), gender (male, female) and life stage.)
    • Traits:CrevicesFissures  + (A narrow crack in hard substratum where penetration is deeper than the width at the entrance; a crevice is <10 mm wide at the entrance, while a fissure is >10 mm (Hiscock ,1996))
    • Traits:Epifloral  + (A plant living on the surface of the substratum.)
    • Traits:Endophytic  + (A plant living within another plant (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998))
    • Traits:Nectochaeta  + (A polychaete larval stage where the first set of chaetal bundles and parapodia develop, although the ciliary girdle remains for swimming (see Stachowitsch, 1992).)
    • Traits:Parenchymella  + (A poriferan larva composed of a ciliated ball of cells (blastula), with a brief swimming phase (Ruppert & Barnes, 1994).)
    • Traits:Amphiblastula  + (A poriferan larva, composed of a hollow ball of cells, with one hemisphere ciliated (Ruppert & Barnes, 1994).)
    • Traits:Fragility  + (A qualitative estimate of the susceptibility of a species to physical damage.)
    • Traits:Exoskeleton  + (A rigid external structure that supports and/or protects the body of an organism and that is mainly completely secreted by the epidermis (derived from Lawrence 2005).)
    • Traits:SimpleAxialProboscis  + (A sac-like proboscis relying on fluid presA sac-like proboscis relying on fluid pressure from the coelom for eversion. There is no particular development of musculature or glands. The worms tend to have reduced septa in the anterior part of the body allowing the contruction of the posterior part of the body to exert considerable force on the proboscis because of the free movement of the coelomic contents. Muscles associated with a thickened first septum (gular membrane) and the proboscis are used for retraction.and the proboscis are used for retraction.)
    • Traits:SeasonalFeeding  + (A seasonal migration for the purpose of following food or moving to suitable feeding grounds)
    • Traits:SeasonalEnvironment  + (A seasonal migration in order to remain within suitable environmental conditions.)
    • Traits:SeasonalReproduction  + (A seasonal migration in order to reproduce.)
    • Traits:Tentacles  + (A slender, flexible limb or appendage in an animal, especially around the mouth of an invertebrate, used for grasping or moving about, or bearing sense organs (OED).)
    • Traits:SpecialisedStage  + (A specialised dormancy or diapause stage in the life cycle of the organism)
    • Traits:Fluctuating  + (A species which exhibits fluctuating densities (either undefined in the literature or otherwise not mentioned in the abundance terms/parameters described here).)
    • Traits:Monoculture  + (A species which exists to the exclusion of all other species including dense mats or in 100% of survey counts.)
    • Traits:Rare to dominant  + (A species which is fluctuates between relatively low to high densities (accounts for such phenomena as population explosions).)
    • Traits:Rare to common  + (A species which is found in relatively low to moderate densities (accounts for non-discrete nature of abundance terms/parameters described here).)
    • Traits:Common to dominant  + (A species which is found in relatively moderate to high densities (accounts for non-discrete nature of abundance terms/parameters described here).)
    • Traits:Locally common  + (A species which is observed to have a patchy distribution in terms of being common only at some locations.)
    • Traits:Rare  + (A species which is present at low or relatively low densities; used to describe single occurrences of the species where appropriate.)
    • Traits:Dominant  + (A species which is very abundant or present at high densities or relatively high densities.)
    • Traits:Invasiveness Not specified  + (A species whose 'invasiveness' has not been specified in its introduced range. The species is known to be present and has been reported but there is no comment on its invasiveness.)
    • Traits:Common  + (A species with is abundant or present at moderate or relatively moderate densities.)
    • Traits:Sphere  + (A sphere or globe)
    • Traits:Infralittoral  + (A subzone of the sublittoral in which upwaA subzone of the sublittoral in which upward-facing rocks are dominated by erect algae, typically kelps; it can be further subdivided into the upper and lower infralittoral (based on Hiscock, 1985). The term is also used by Glémarec (1973) to refer to areas (étages) with a eurythermal environment of great seasonal and also daily and tidal amplitude. 1) lower The part of the infralittoral subzone which, on hard substrata, supports scattered kelp plants (a kelp park) or from which kelps are absent altogether and the seabed is dominated by foliose red and brown algae. It may be difficult to distinguish the lower infralittoralwhere grazing pressure prevents the establishment of foliose algae. 2) upper The part of the infralittoral subzone which, on hardsubstrata, is dominated by Laminariales forming a dense canopy, or kelp forest (based on Hiscock, 1985)., or kelp forest (based on Hiscock, 1985).)
    • Traits:Inquilinist  + (A symbiotic association in which one symbiont lives in close association with another, generally in the tube or burrow or actually within a body chamber of the host (Brusca, 1980).)
    • Traits:Mitraria  + (A type of polychaete larva characterized by numerous long flotation bristles (Stachowitsch, 1992).)
    • Traits:Benthopelagic  + (A zone of open water extending ca 100 m above the surface of the sea bed at all depths below the edge of the continental shelf.)
    • Traits:Abundance  + (Abundance and population trends of species populations have been recorded where this information was available.)
    • Traits:SearcherForager  + (Active foragers that seek out prey usually of lower mobility (than themselves) e.g. arthropods (crabs, spiders) gastropods, starfish)
    • Traits:Nekton  + (Active swimming organisms that live in the water column and are able to move independently of the water mass (adapted from Lincoln <i>et al.</i>, 1998).)
    • Traits:AgeAtMaturity  + (Age recorded in days, months, years.)
    • Traits:Aquaculture: deliberate  + (Alien and potentially invasive species that have been intentionally introduced for aquaculture.)
    • Traits:Aquaculture: accidental  + (Alien and potentially invasive species that have accidentally escaped from containment/ aquaculture facility into the wild.)
    • Traits:Pouncing  + (An ambush predator that uses a sudden, rapid movement to 'pounce on, grab or swallow' its prey once the prey in within short range.)
    • Traits:Epifaunal  + (An animal living on the surface of the substratum.)
    • Traits:Symbiotic  + (An association between two organisms. The term may bused to describe all associations between organisms of the same or different species. It is usually reserved for associations that are mutually beneficial (adapted from Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998))
    • Traits:BiogenicReef  + (An elevated structure on the seabed built by calcareous or other concretion-forming organisms, or by chemical precipitation (Hiscock, 1996); for example by ''Modiolus modiolus'' or ''Sabellaria alveolata'')
    • Traits:OvalCylinder  + (An ellipsoid on an elliptic base (Olenina ''et al.'', 2006))
    • Traits:Larva  + (An independent, motile, developmental stagAn independent, motile, developmental stage of an organism, that differs in morphology and ecology from the juvenile or adult stage, and undergoes a metamorphosis to become the juvenile or adult (adapted from Ruppert & Barnes, 1994; Barnes et al., 2006).; Barnes, 1994; Barnes <em>et al.</em>, 2006).)
    • Traits:Flexibility  + (An indication of how far an organism can bend/flex without breaking or suffering damage - High (>45°) / Low (10 – 45°) / None (<10°))
    • Traits:FlyerFlight  + (An organism able to propel itself though the air e.g. using wings, such as winged insects, birds)
    • Traits:Parasitoid  + (An organism intermediate between a parasite and a predator; e.g. hymenopterans where the larvae feed within the tissue of a living host, leading to the death of the host (adapted from Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:TemporaryAttachment  + (An organism that can temporarily attach to a substratum but is able to release its attachment, and move across (or through) it (i.e. sedentary) (e.g. ''Actinia'').)
    • Traits:PursuitHunterIndividual  + (An organism that chases after, catches and subdues mobile prey (e.g. predatory polychaetes, squid, fish, otter, seal, seabirds))
    • Traits:BurrowBuilder  + (An organism that constructs permanent or semi-permanent burrows through physical excavation or chemical action.)
    • Traits:Aggregations  + (An organism that constructs reefs and raised beds due to aggregation of large numbers of individuals via permanent or semi-permanent attachment e.g. mussels, oysters and ''Crepidula'' beds.)
    • Traits:Calcareous  + (An organism that constructs reefs or biogenic structures composed of the calcareous skeletons of individuals or colonies (e.g. corals))
    • Traits:Accretion  + (An organism that constructs reefs or raised beds of accreted materials, e.g. bound sand in ''Sabellaria'' spp.)
    • Traits:Mixotroph  + (An organism that exhibts both autotrophy and heterotrophy)
    • Traits:Carnivore  + (An organism that feeds on animal tissue/meat.)
    • Traits:Scavenger  + (An organism that feeds on carrion and organic refuse (e.g. crabs, whelks) (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:Saprophage  + (An organism that feeds on dead or decaying organic material (see Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:Detritivore  + (An organism that feeds on fragmented particulate organic matter (detritus) (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:SubsurfaceDepositFeeder  + (An organism that feeds on fragmented particulate organic matter within the substratum (e.g. ''Echinocardium cordatum'') (adapted from Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:SurfaceDepositFeeder  + (An organism that feeds on fragmented particulate organic matter on the surface of the substratum (e.g. ''Corophium volutator'') (adapted from Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:DepositFeeder  + (An organism that feeds on fragmented particulate organic matter within or on the substratum (adapted from Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:ForestForming  + (An organism that forms a large area of close individuals forming a canopy (e.g. trees, large kelps).)
    • Traits:ReefBuilding  + (An organism that forms large areas of hard substratum for other organisms due to the scale of its aggregations (e.g. horse mussels), accretions (e.g. ''Sabellaria'') or its skeleton (e.g. corals).)
    • Traits:PursuitHunterCooperative  + (An organism that hunts in a team, pack, pod, flock, swarm etc)
    • Traits:Glider  + (An organism that is able to glide through the air (e.g. using some form of membrane) but cannot propel itself through the air (e.g. flying fish))
    • Traits:ParasiticFeeding  + (An organism that is intimately associated with, and metabolically dependant on another living organism, for completion of its life cycle, and which is detrimental to the host to a lesser or greater extent.)
    • Traits:Parasite  + (An organism that is intimately associated with, and metabolically dependent on, another organism (termed the host) for completion of its life cycle and which is detrimental to the host (see Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998))
    • Traits:Tubicolous  + (An organism that lives in a tube of its own construction (e.g. mucus, bound sand grains, Calcium carbonate etc).)
    • Traits:BedForming  + (An organism that lives in large aggregations or beds (e.g. brittlestars, mussels, oysters, ''Crepidula'' etc, sea squirts))
    • Traits:CrawlerWalkerClimber  + (An organism that moves across, up or down the substratum via movements of its legs, appendages or muscles (e.g. ''Carcinus'').)
    • Traits:Epipelic  + (An organism that moves over the surface of sediment or lives at the sediment / water interface.)
    • Traits:Creeper  + (An organism that moves slowly or 'creeps' across the surface of the substratum)
    • Traits:Burrower  + (An organism that moves through the substratum by burrowing or tunneling (e.g. earthworms, polychaetes).)
    • Traits:Swimmer  + (An organism that moves through the water column via movements of its cilia, flagella, fins, legs or appendages, via undulatory movements of the body or via jet propulsion (e.g. ''Gadus'', ''Loligo'').)
    • Traits:Photoautotroph  + (An organism that obtains metabolic energy from light by a photochemical process such as photosynthesis (e.g. seaweeds, phytoplankton) (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:Chemoautotroph  + (An organism that obtains metabolic energy from oxidation of inorganic substrates such as sulphur, nitrogen or iron (e.g. some micro-organisms) (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:Heterotroph  + (An organism that obtains nourishment from exogenous (external) organic material (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:Substratum  + (An organism that provide substratum for specific other organisms, rarely found on other organisms, a ubiquitous relationship.)
    • Traits:Support  + (An organism that provides 'support' for other organisms, either as a host for a symbiote or parasite, or as substratum for epibiota.)
    • Traits:Host  + (An organism that provides food or shelter for another organisms, e.g. the inhabited symbiont. May be a definitive host infected by an adult stage or an intermediate host infected by life stages (see Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:Lures  + (An organism that uses a lure to attract prey within range of its 'pounce' attack)
    • Traits:StunAttack  + (An organism that uses pulses of electricity or sound to stun prey (e.g. pistol shrimp))
    • Traits:Traps  + (An organism that uses traps such as sticky threads or webbing (e.g. spiders))
    • Traits:Omnivore  + (An organism which feeds on a mixed diet including plant and animal material (from Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:Herbivore  + (An organism which only feeds on plants, including phytoplankton.)
    • Traits:Drifter  + (An organism whose movement is dependent on wind or water currents (e.g. ''Aurelia'').)
    • Traits:Overhangs  + (An overhanging part of a rock formation. Typically the surface of the rock below the overhang receives some cover or shade from the overhang.)
    • Traits:GrazerSurfaceSubstratum  + (Animals that rasp benthic algae (or sessile animals, such as bryozoan crusts) from the substratum (MarLIN; Hiscock ''et al.'', 1999).)
    • Traits:GrazerGrainsParticles  + (Animals that rasp benthic algae (or sessile animals, such as bryozoan crusts) from inorganic particles e.g. sand grains (MarLIN; Hiscock ''et al.'', 1999).)
    • Traits:GrazerFrondsBlades  + (Animals that rasp benthic algae (or sessile animals, such as bryozoan crusts) from the surface of macroalgal fronds and blades (Hiscock ''et al.'', 1999).)
    • Traits:Instar  + (Any intermoult stage in the development of an arthropod (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998))
    • Traits:OpenCoast  + (Any part of the coast not within a marine inlet, strait or lagoon, including offshore rocks and small islands. This includes MNCR types; linear coast, islands / rocks and semi-enclosed coast.)
    • Traits:Bedrock  + (Any stable hard substratum, not separated into boulders or smaller sediment units. Includes soft rock-types such as chalk, peat and clay. (Hiscock ''et al.'', 1999; MarLIN))
    • Traits:Setose  + (Appendages (arms, specialisted mothparts) used to capture suspended particulates)
    • Traits:GraspingClaws  + (Appendages bear grasping claws (chelae) - e.g. arthropods, crabs, scorpions)
    • Traits:Papillae  + (Appendages bear mucus laden papilae or tube feet (e.g. suspension feeding echinoderns, brittlestars, crinoids).)
    • Traits:Suctorial  + (Appendages that bear suckers on muscular arms to hold and subdue prey (e.g cephalopods))
    • Traits:Globose  + (Approximately spherical, ovoid or globular (Brusca, 1980).)
    • Traits:Stellate  + (Arranged like a star.)
    • Traits:Vegetative  + (Asexual reproduction via somatic growth processes, fragmentation, fission, or budding (adapted from Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998))
    • Traits:AdultBody  + (Attached or stuck to adult but not held in specialised appendage / receptacle)
    • Traits:HardSubstrata  + (Attached or stuck to hard substrata, e.g. dog whelk capsules)
    • Traits:Vegetation  + (Attached or stuck to vegetation, e.g. opistobranchs, mermaid purses, cephalopod eggs etc.)
    • Traits:AttachedSediment  + (Attached to the sediment surface e.g. by mucilagenous sheath such as used by necklace shells, and opistobranchs)
    • Traits:MutualistMutualism  + (A symbiosis in which both organisms benefit; frequently a relationship of complete dependence. (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998) (cf.symbiosis, commensalism, parasite).)
    • Traits:BullateSaccate  + (Balloon or sac-like (Prescott, 1969).)
    • Traits:MidEulittoral  + (Barnacle - limpet dominated, sometimes mussels, with ''Fucus vesiculosus'' and ''Ascophyllum nodosum. Mastocarpus stellatus'' and ''Palmaria palmata'' patchy in lower part. Usually quite a wide belt (Hiscock, 1996).)
    • Traits:UpperEulittoral  + (Barnacles and limpets present in quantity with ''Fucus vesiculosus'' and ''Ascophyllum'' although often this belt has only sparse algal cover compared with the lower eulittoral (Hiscock, 1996).)
    • Traits:Tolerance  + (Based on AMBI)
    • Traits:Foliose  + (Bearing leaves or leaf-like structures; having the appearance of a leaf.)
    • Traits:Infaunal  + (Benthic animals which live within the seabed.)
    • Traits:Hovering  + (Bird/insect specific)
    • Traits:Broadcast  + (Both gametes are expelled (spawned) from the confines of the adult body or tissues, into the external fluid medium (water/air))
    • Traits:HaploidDiploid  + (Both haploid and diploid forms, with gametophytes giving rise to haploid gametes, and sporophytes giving rise to haploid spores by meiosis)
    • Traits:Monoecious  + (Both male and female reproductive organs in a single individual (animals) or flower (plants) (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:PinnateBranching  + (Branched tentacles, used as filtration mechanism)
    • Traits:Dendroid  + (Branching irregularly – similar to that of a root system (Prescott, 1969).)
    • Traits:Pinnate  + (Branching like a feather – an elongate main axis with lateral branches or lobes (Prescott, 1969).)
    • Traits:Semelparous  + (Breeding once per lifetime, or breeding only once then dying (Barnes ''et al.'', 2006). Organisms that only have one brood during their lifetime (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:BiannualEpisodic  + (Breeds every second year but in one or more discrete periods initiated by some trigger (for example a lunar cycle).)
    • Traits:AnnualEpisodic  + (Breeds every year but in one or more discrete periods initiated by some trigger (for example a lunar cycle).)
    • Traits:AnnualProtracted  + (Breeds every year over an extended or drawn out period.)
    • Traits:Biannual  + (Breeds less frequently than every two years.)
    • Traits:BiannualProtracted  + (Breeds once every two years over an extended or drawn out period.)
    • Traits:Environment  + (Broad descriptors of the major environmental regions)
    • Traits:Penicillate  + (Brush like (Prescott ,1969).)
    • Traits:BodyAccretion  + (Build up or accumulation of sediment.)
    • Traits:Massive  + (Bulky (Homes, 1979).)
    • Traits:CITES  + (CITES (the Convention on International TraCITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between governments. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. https://www.cites.org/ten their survival. https://www.cites.org/)
    • Traits:HighMagnesiumCalcite  + (Calcite where more then 8wt.% CaCO3 is substituted by MgCO3.)
    • Traits:Mobile  + (Capable of movement)
    • Traits:PermanentHermaphrodite  + (Capable of producing both ova and spermatozoa either at the same time (Barnes ''et al.'', 1993).)
    • Traits:SelfFertilizing  + (Capable of self-fertilization)
    • Traits:Passive  + (Catching food on a filter held into flowing water (e.g. hydroids, sea fans, sea pens), or collecting the 'rain' of detritus on sticky apparatus other than a filter (e.g. Cucumaria frondosa, proboscis of echinurans) (MarLIN; Hiscock et al. 1999).)
    • Traits:StraitSound  + (Channels between the mainland and an island or between two islands which are open at both ends to the open coast (it does not refer to similar features or narrows within marine inlets).)
    • Traits:Bivalved  + (Characteristically a shell of two calcareous valves joined by a flexible ligament.)
    • Traits:Physiography  + (Coastal geomorphology and physical features.)
    • Traits:AnchialineCaves  + (Coastal salt water habitats with no surface connection to the sea.)
    • Traits:VerySheltered  + (Coasts with a fetch less than about 3 km where they face prevailing winds or about 20 km where they face away from prevailing winds, or which have offshore obstructions such as reefs or a narrow (<30°) open water window.)
    • Traits:Sheltered  + (Coasts with a restricted fetch and/or open water window. Coasts can face prevailing winds but with a short fetch (< 20 km) or extensive shallow area offshore, or may face away from prevailing winds.)
    • Traits:Ecological Descriptors  + (Collection of traits relating to species ecology)
    • Traits:Conical  + (Cone shaped e.g. limpet-shaped, patelliform (adapted from Stachowitsch, 1992).)
    • Traits:ConeHalfSphere  + (Cone with a half sphere (Olenina ''et al.'', 2006).)
    • Traits:TruncatedCone  + (Cone with flattended top (Olenina ''et al.'', 2006))
    • Traits:AlgalGravel  + (Constructs deep beds of calcareous algal nodules, e.g. maerl beds)
    • Traits:SocialGroup  + (Cooperative groups of the same species - e.g. social insects, mammals)
    • Traits:Introduced country and/or sea area  + (Country or sea area that is recorded as the known introduced range of the species.)
    • Traits:Source country and/or sea area  + (Country or sea area which is the known source area of the introduced species or population. The source area could be the native range of the species or a known introduced range.)
    • Traits:Native country and/or native sea area  + (Country or sea area which is the native range of the species.)
    • Traits:Actinula  + (Crawling larval stage of some hydoids (amend))
    • Traits:Diel  + (Daily, pertaining to a 24 hour period.)
    • Traits:WaveExposed  + (Defined via traits - but included as some authors do not specify level of wave exposure.)
    • Traits:WaveSheltered  + (Defined via traits below - included as some authors do not specify)
    • Traits:FaunalBeds  + (Dense aggregation of animals that visually dominate the seabed or shore such as brittlestars (e.g. ''Ophiothrix fragilis'' ) or mussels (e.g. ''Mytilus edulis'').)
    • Traits:CoralSands  + (Deposition of sands formed by the breakdown to the skeletons of living organisms)
    • Traits:Dependancy  + (Description of an organism's relationship with other organisms)
    • Traits:DiapauseStage  + (Description of dormant stage)
    • Traits:SedimentReworking  + (Description of how an organism modifies or changes the physico-chemical nature of the habitat itself, e.g sediment reworking, deposition of faeces, or burrowing)
    • Traits:LarvalJuvenileDevelopment  + (Description of how the larvae or juveniles develop into adults)
    • Traits:FeedingApparatus  + (Description of the apparatus (mechanism) used to collect/capture food)
    • Traits:Lifestage  + (Description of the larval and juvenile stages in the life cycle of an organism)
    • Traits:Fertilization  + (Description of the location of fertilization, whereby in animals/macroalgae a gametes are fertilized or in plants pollination occurs.)
    • Traits:LarvalSettlement  + (Description of the period of time over which larval settlement occurs.)
    • Traits:FoodTypeDiet  + (Description of the source of the organisms nurishment, i.e. what it feeds on)
    • Traits:SubstratumHabitat  + (Description of the substratum on or in which an organism is found or recorded.)
    • Traits:EggClutchLocation  + (Description of where fertilized eggs are placed or held)
    • Traits:Province  + (Descriptors of the major 'regions' of the seas.)
    • Traits:GameteType  + (Descriptors of the relative size of gametes)
    • Traits:FeaturesOther  + (Descriptors of types of unusual or unique types of substratum or habitat)
    • Traits:GrowthForm  + (Deterministic growth or indeterminate growth resulting in single unitary individuals or modular (colonial) organisms.)
    • Traits:Lecithotrophic  + (Development at the expense of internal resources (i.e. yolk) provided by the female (Barnes ''et al.'', 1993).)
    • Traits:DirectDevelopment  + (Development without a larval stage)
    • Traits:OntogeneticMigration  + (Different life stages migrate into different habitats, or part of habitat (e.g. copepods) (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:Medusiform  + (Disk, bell or umbrella shaped and often gelatinous (Barnes et al., 1988).)
    • Traits:LowerCircalittoral  + (Dominated by animals with no foliose algae but encrusting Rhodophycota patchy in grazed areas. The part of the circalittoral subzone on hard substrata below the maximum depth limit of foliose algae (based on Hiscock, 1985).)
    • Traits:UpperCircalittoral  + (Dominated by animals with sparse foliose aDominated by animals with sparse foliose algae except where grazed. The part of the circalittoral subzone on hard substrata distinguished by the presence of scattered foliose algae amongst the dominating animals; its lower limit is the maximum limit of depth for foliose algae (based on Hiscock, 1985).or foliose algae (based on Hiscock, 1985).)
    • Traits:DoubleCone  + (Double cone (Olenina ''et al.'', 2006))
    • Traits:Estuary  + (Downstream part of a river where it widens to enter the sea; often with significant freshwater influence and predominantly comprising sediment habitats.)
    • Traits:RiaVoe  + (Drowned river valleys of south-west Britain (ria) and Shetland (voe). Often with a greater presence of rock and more marine in character than estuaries.)
    • Traits:LarvalStageDuration  + (Duration of the larval stage recorded in days or months.)
    • Traits:AnchorShaped  + (E.g. ''Ceratium'' spp.)
    • Traits:Artificial  + (E.g. wood, metal or concrete structures.)
    • Traits:Juvenile  + (Early adult life stage of an organism that shares the morphology and ecology of the adult but is not capable of reproduction.)