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A list of all pages that have property "Definition" with value "An organism that hunts in a team, pack, pod, flock, swarm etc". Since there have been only a few results, also nearby values are displayed.

Showing below up to 126 results starting with #1.

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List of results

  • Traits:Flexibility  + (An indication of how far an organism can bend/flex without breaking or suffering damage - High (>45°) / Low (10 – 45°) / None (<10°))
  • Traits:FlyerFlight  + (An organism able to propel itself though the air e.g. using wings, such as winged insects, birds)
  • Traits:Parasitoid  + (An organism intermediate between a parasite and a predator; e.g. hymenopterans where the larvae feed within the tissue of a living host, leading to the death of the host (adapted from Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
  • Traits:TemporaryAttachment  + (An organism that can temporarily attach to a substratum but is able to release its attachment, and move across (or through) it (i.e. sedentary) (e.g. ''Actinia'').)
  • Traits:PursuitHunterIndividual  + (An organism that chases after, catches and subdues mobile prey (e.g. predatory polychaetes, squid, fish, otter, seal, seabirds))
  • Traits:BurrowBuilder  + (An organism that constructs permanent or semi-permanent burrows through physical excavation or chemical action.)
  • Traits:Aggregations  + (An organism that constructs reefs and raised beds due to aggregation of large numbers of individuals via permanent or semi-permanent attachment e.g. mussels, oysters and ''Crepidula'' beds.)
  • Traits:Calcareous  + (An organism that constructs reefs or biogenic structures composed of the calcareous skeletons of individuals or colonies (e.g. corals))
  • Traits:Accretion  + (An organism that constructs reefs or raised beds of accreted materials, e.g. bound sand in ''Sabellaria'' spp.)
  • Traits:Mixotroph  + (An organism that exhibts both autotrophy and heterotrophy)
  • Traits:Carnivore  + (An organism that feeds on animal tissue/meat.)
  • Traits:Scavenger  + (An organism that feeds on carrion and organic refuse (e.g. crabs, whelks) (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
  • Traits:Saprophage  + (An organism that feeds on dead or decaying organic material (see Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
  • Traits:Detritivore  + (An organism that feeds on fragmented particulate organic matter (detritus) (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
  • Traits:SubsurfaceDepositFeeder  + (An organism that feeds on fragmented particulate organic matter within the substratum (e.g. ''Echinocardium cordatum'') (adapted from Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
  • Traits:SurfaceDepositFeeder  + (An organism that feeds on fragmented particulate organic matter on the surface of the substratum (e.g. ''Corophium volutator'') (adapted from Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
  • Traits:DepositFeeder  + (An organism that feeds on fragmented particulate organic matter within or on the substratum (adapted from Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
  • Traits:ForestForming  + (An organism that forms a large area of close individuals forming a canopy (e.g. trees, large kelps).)
  • Traits:ReefBuilding  + (An organism that forms large areas of hard substratum for other organisms due to the scale of its aggregations (e.g. horse mussels), accretions (e.g. ''Sabellaria'') or its skeleton (e.g. corals).)
  • Traits:Glider  + (An organism that is able to glide through the air (e.g. using some form of membrane) but cannot propel itself through the air (e.g. flying fish))
  • Traits:ParasiticFeeding  + (An organism that is intimately associated with, and metabolically dependant on another living organism, for completion of its life cycle, and which is detrimental to the host to a lesser or greater extent.)
  • Traits:Parasite  + (An organism that is intimately associated with, and metabolically dependent on, another organism (termed the host) for completion of its life cycle and which is detrimental to the host (see Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998))
  • Traits:Tubicolous  + (An organism that lives in a tube of its own construction (e.g. mucus, bound sand grains, Calcium carbonate etc).)
  • Traits:BedForming  + (An organism that lives in large aggregations or beds (e.g. brittlestars, mussels, oysters, ''Crepidula'' etc, sea squirts))
  • Traits:CrawlerWalkerClimber  + (An organism that moves across, up or down the substratum via movements of its legs, appendages or muscles (e.g. ''Carcinus'').)
  • Traits:Epipelic  + (An organism that moves over the surface of sediment or lives at the sediment / water interface.)
  • Traits:Creeper  + (An organism that moves slowly or 'creeps' across the surface of the substratum)
  • Traits:Burrower  + (An organism that moves through the substratum by burrowing or tunneling (e.g. earthworms, polychaetes).)
  • Traits:Swimmer  + (An organism that moves through the water column via movements of its cilia, flagella, fins, legs or appendages, via undulatory movements of the body or via jet propulsion (e.g. ''Gadus'', ''Loligo'').)
  • Traits:Photoautotroph  + (An organism that obtains metabolic energy from light by a photochemical process such as photosynthesis (e.g. seaweeds, phytoplankton) (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
  • Traits:Chemoautotroph  + (An organism that obtains metabolic energy from oxidation of inorganic substrates such as sulphur, nitrogen or iron (e.g. some micro-organisms) (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
  • Traits:Heterotroph  + (An organism that obtains nourishment from exogenous (external) organic material (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
  • Traits:Substratum  + (An organism that provide substratum for specific other organisms, rarely found on other organisms, a ubiquitous relationship.)
  • Traits:Support  + (An organism that provides 'support' for other organisms, either as a host for a symbiote or parasite, or as substratum for epibiota.)
  • Traits:Host  + (An organism that provides food or shelter for another organisms, e.g. the inhabited symbiont. May be a definitive host infected by an adult stage or an intermediate host infected by life stages (see Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
  • Traits:Lures  + (An organism that uses a lure to attract prey within range of its 'pounce' attack)
  • Traits:StunAttack  + (An organism that uses pulses of electricity or sound to stun prey (e.g. pistol shrimp))
  • Traits:Traps  + (An organism that uses traps such as sticky threads or webbing (e.g. spiders))
  • Traits:Omnivore  + (An organism which feeds on a mixed diet including plant and animal material (from Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
  • Traits:Herbivore  + (An organism which only feeds on plants, including phytoplankton.)
  • Traits:Drifter  + (An organism whose movement is dependent on wind or water currents (e.g. ''Aurelia'').)
  • Traits:Overhangs  + (An overhanging part of a rock formation. Typically the surface of the rock below the overhang receives some cover or shade from the overhang.)
  • Traits:GrazerSurfaceSubstratum  + (Animals that rasp benthic algae (or sessile animals, such as bryozoan crusts) from the substratum (MarLIN; Hiscock ''et al.'', 1999).)
  • Traits:GrazerGrainsParticles  + (Animals that rasp benthic algae (or sessile animals, such as bryozoan crusts) from inorganic particles e.g. sand grains (MarLIN; Hiscock ''et al.'', 1999).)
  • Traits:GrazerFrondsBlades  + (Animals that rasp benthic algae (or sessile animals, such as bryozoan crusts) from the surface of macroalgal fronds and blades (Hiscock ''et al.'', 1999).)
  • Traits:HabitatsDirectiveAnnexII  + (Annex II species (about 900): core areas of their habitat are designated as sites of Community importance (SCIs) and included in the Natura 2000 network. These sites must be managed in accordance with the ecological needs of the species.)
  • Traits:HabitatsDirectiveAnnexIV  + (Annex IV species (over 400, including many annex II species): a strict protection regime must be applied across their entire natural range within the EU, both within and outside Natura 2000 sites.)
  • Traits:HabitatsDirectiveAnnexV  + (Annex V species (over 90): Member States must ensure that their exploitation and taking in the wild is compatible with maintaining them in a favourable conservation status.)
  • Traits:Instar  + (Any intermoult stage in the development of an arthropod (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998))
  • Traits:OpenCoast  + (Any part of the coast not within a marine inlet, strait or lagoon, including offshore rocks and small islands. This includes MNCR types; linear coast, islands / rocks and semi-enclosed coast.)
  • Traits:Bedrock  + (Any stable hard substratum, not separated into boulders or smaller sediment units. Includes soft rock-types such as chalk, peat and clay. (Hiscock ''et al.'', 1999; MarLIN))
  • Traits:Setose  + (Appendages (arms, specialisted mothparts) used to capture suspended particulates)
  • Traits:GraspingClaws  + (Appendages bear grasping claws (chelae) - e.g. arthropods, crabs, scorpions)
  • Traits:Papillae  + (Appendages bear mucus laden papilae or tube feet (e.g. suspension feeding echinoderns, brittlestars, crinoids).)
  • Traits:Suctorial  + (Appendages that bear suckers on muscular arms to hold and subdue prey (e.g cephalopods))
  • Traits:CITESAppendixI  + (Appendix I lists species that are the mostAppendix I lists species that are the most endangered among CITES-listed animals and plants (see Article II, paragraph 1 of the Convention). They are threatened with extinction and CITES prohibits international trade in specimens of these species except when the purpose of the import is not commercial (see Article III), for instance for scientific research. In these exceptional cases, trade may take place provided it is authorized by the granting of both an import permit and an export permit (or re-export certificate). Article VII of the Convention provides for a number of exemptions to this general prohibition.of exemptions to this general prohibition.)
  • Traits:CITESAppendixII  + (Appendix II lists species that are not necAppendix II lists species that are not necessarily now threatened with extinction but that may become so unless trade is closely controlled. It also includes so-called "look-alike species", i.e. species whose specimens in trade look like those of species listed for conservation reasons (see Article II, paragraph 2 of the Convention). International trade in specimens of Appendix-II species may be authorized by the granting of an export permit or re-export certificate. No import permit is necessary for these species under CITES (although a permit is needed in some countries that have taken stricter measures than CITES requires). Permits or certificates should only be granted if the relevant authorities are satisfied that certain conditions are met, above all that trade will not be detrimental to the survival of the species in the wild. (See Article IV of the Convention)e wild. (See Article IV of the Convention))
  • Traits:CITESAppendixIII  + (Appendix III is a list of species includedAppendix III is a list of species included at the request of a Party that already regulates trade in the species and that needs the cooperation of other countries to prevent unsustainable or illegal exploitation (see Article II, paragraph 3, of the Convention). International trade in specimens of species listed in this Appendix is allowed only on presentation of the appropriate permits or certificates. (See Article V of the Convention)ficates. (See Article V of the Convention))
  • Traits:Globose  + (Approximately spherical, ovoid or globular (Brusca, 1980).)
  • Traits:Stellate  + (Arranged like a star.)
  • Traits:Vegetative  + (Asexual reproduction via somatic growth processes, fragmentation, fission, or budding (adapted from Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998))
  • Traits:AdultBody  + (Attached or stuck to adult but not held in specialised appendage / receptacle)
  • Traits:HardSubstrata  + (Attached or stuck to hard substrata, e.g. dog whelk capsules)
  • Traits:Vegetation  + (Attached or stuck to vegetation, e.g. opistobranchs, mermaid purses, cephalopod eggs etc.)
  • Traits:AttachedSediment  + (Attached to the sediment surface e.g. by mucilagenous sheath such as used by necklace shells, and opistobranchs)
  • Traits:MutualistMutualism  + (A symbiosis in which both organisms benefit; frequently a relationship of complete dependence. (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998) (cf.symbiosis, commensalism, parasite).)
  • Traits:BullateSaccate  + (Balloon or sac-like (Prescott, 1969).)
  • Traits:MidEulittoral  + (Barnacle - limpet dominated, sometimes mussels, with ''Fucus vesiculosus'' and ''Ascophyllum nodosum. Mastocarpus stellatus'' and ''Palmaria palmata'' patchy in lower part. Usually quite a wide belt (Hiscock, 1996).)
  • Traits:UpperEulittoral  + (Barnacles and limpets present in quantity with ''Fucus vesiculosus'' and ''Ascophyllum'' although often this belt has only sparse algal cover compared with the lower eulittoral (Hiscock, 1996).)
  • Traits:Tolerance  + (Based on AMBI)
  • Traits:Foliose  + (Bearing leaves or leaf-like structures; having the appearance of a leaf.)
  • Traits:Infaunal  + (Benthic animals which live within the seabed.)
  • Traits:Hovering  + (Bird/insect specific)
  • Traits:QuantitativeBodySize  + (Body size measured in numerical values.)
  • Traits:QualitativeBodySize  + (Body size measured in terms of mega, macro, meio/meso and micro.)
  • Traits:Broadcast  + (Both gametes are expelled (spawned) from the confines of the adult body or tissues, into the external fluid medium (water/air))
  • Traits:HaploidDiploid  + (Both haploid and diploid forms, with gametophytes giving rise to haploid gametes, and sporophytes giving rise to haploid spores by meiosis)
  • Traits:Monoecious  + (Both male and female reproductive organs in a single individual (animals) or flower (plants) (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
  • Traits:PinnateBranching  + (Branched tentacles, used as filtration mechanism)
  • Traits:Dendroid  + (Branching irregularly – similar to that of a root system (Prescott, 1969).)
  • Traits:Pinnate  + (Branching like a feather – an elongate main axis with lateral branches or lobes (Prescott, 1969).)
  • Traits:Semelparous  + (Breeding once per lifetime, or breeding only once then dying (Barnes ''et al.'', 2006). Organisms that only have one brood during their lifetime (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
  • Traits:BiannualEpisodic  + (Breeds every second year but in one or more discrete periods initiated by some trigger (for example a lunar cycle).)
  • Traits:AnnualEpisodic  + (Breeds every year but in one or more discrete periods initiated by some trigger (for example a lunar cycle).)
  • Traits:AnnualProtracted  + (Breeds every year over an extended or drawn out period.)
  • Traits:Biannual  + (Breeds less frequently than every two years.)
  • Traits:BiannualProtracted  + (Breeds once every two years over an extended or drawn out period.)
  • Traits:Environment  + (Broad descriptors of the major environmental regions)
  • Traits:Penicillate  + (Brush like (Prescott ,1969).)
  • Traits:BodyAccretion  + (Build up or accumulation of sediment.)
  • Traits:Massive  + (Bulky (Homes, 1979).)
  • Traits:CITES  + (CITES (the Convention on International TraCITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between governments. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival.</br></br>Appendices I, II and III to the Convention are lists of species afforded different levels or types of protection from over-exploitation.ypes of protection from over-exploitation.)
  • Traits:HighMagnesiumCalcite  + (Calcite where more then 8wt.% CaCO3 is substituted by MgCO3.)
  • Traits:Mobile  + (Capable of movement)
  • Traits:PermanentHermaphrodite  + (Capable of producing both ova and spermatozoa either at the same time (Barnes ''et al.'', 1993).)
  • Traits:SelfFertilizing  + (Capable of self-fertilization)
  • Traits:Passive  + (Catching food on a filter held into flowing water (e.g. hydroids, sea fans, sea pens), or collecting the 'rain' of detritus on sticky apparatus other than a filter (e.g. Cucumaria frondosa, proboscis of echinurans) (MarLIN; Hiscock et al. 1999).)
  • Traits:StraitSound  + (Channels between the mainland and an island or between two islands which are open at both ends to the open coast (it does not refer to similar features or narrows within marine inlets).)
  • Traits:Bivalved  + (Characteristically a shell of two calcareous valves joined by a flexible ligament.)
  • Traits:Physiography  + (Coastal geomorphology and physical features.)
  • Traits:AnchialineCaves  + (Coastal salt water habitats with no surface connection to the sea.)
  • Traits:VerySheltered  + (Coasts with a fetch less than about 3 km where they face prevailing winds or about 20 km where they face away from prevailing winds, or which have offshore obstructions such as reefs or a narrow (<30°) open water window.)
  • Traits:Sheltered  + (Coasts with a restricted fetch and/or open water window. Coasts can face prevailing winds but with a short fetch (< 20 km) or extensive shallow area offshore, or may face away from prevailing winds.)
  • Traits:Ecological Descriptors  + (Collection of traits relating to species ecology)
  • Traits:SealAbundanceAndDistribution  + (Common in OSPAR Region II)
  • Traits:MarineMammalBycatch  + (Common in OSPAR Region II)
  • Traits:RecoveryInThePopulationAbundanceOfSensitiveFishSpecies  + (Common in OSPAR Region II, III)
  • Traits:ChangesInBiodiversityIndex  + (Common in OSPAR Region III)
  • Traits:ChangeInAverageTrophicLevelOfMarinePredatorsInTheBayOfBiscay  + (Common in OSPAR Region IV)
  • Traits:TypicalSpeciesComposition  + (Common in OSPAR Region IV)
  • Traits:GreySealPupProduction  + (Common in OSPAR Regions II, III)
  • Traits:ProportionOfLargeFish  + (Common in OSPAR Regions II, III)
  • Traits:TrendsInNewRecordsOfNonIndigenousSpeciesIntroducedByHumanActivities  + (Common in OSPAR Regions II, III, IV)
  • Traits:MarineBirdBreedingSuccessFailure  + (Common in OSPAR Regions II, III, IV)
  • Traits:SizeCompositionInFishCommunities  + (Common in OSPAR Regions II, III, IV)
  • Traits:ConditionOfBenthicHabitatCommunities  + (Common in OSPAR Regions II, III, IV)
  • Traits:ExtentOfPhysicalDamageToPredominantAndSpecialHabitats  + (Common in OSPAR Regions II, III, IV)
  • Traits:ChangesInPlanktonFunctionalTypesIndexRatio  + (Common in OSPAR Regions II, III, IV)
  • Traits:AbundanceAndDistributionOfMarineMammals  + (Common in OSPAR Regions II, III, IV)
  • Traits:PlanktonBiomassAndOrAbundance  + (Common in OSPAR Regions II, III, IV)
  • Traits:MarineBirdAbundance  + (Common in OSPAR Regions II, III, IV)
  • Traits:Conical  + (Cone shaped e.g. limpet-shaped, patelliform (adapted from Stachowitsch, 1992).)
  • Traits:ConeHalfSphere  + (Cone with a half sphere (Olenina ''et al.'', 2006).)
  • Traits:TruncatedCone  + (Cone with flattended top (Olenina ''et al.'', 2006))
  • Traits:AlgalGravel  + (Constructs deep beds of calcareous algal nodules, e.g. maerl beds)
  • Traits:SocialGroup  + (Cooperative groups of the same species - e.g. social insects, mammals)
  • Traits:Introduced country and/or sea area  + (Country or sea area that is recorded as the known introduced range of the species.)
  • Traits:Source country and/or sea area  + (Country or sea area which is the known source area of the introduced species or population. The source area could be the native range of the species or a known introduced range.)
  • Traits:Native country and/or native sea area  + (Country or sea area which is the native range of the species.)
  • Traits:Actinula  + (Crawling larval stage of some hydoids (amend))
  • Traits:Diel  + (Daily, pertaining to a 24 hour period.)
  • Traits:WaveExposed  + (Defined via traits - but included as some authors do not specify level of wave exposure.)
  • Traits:WaveSheltered  + (Defined via traits below - included as some authors do not specify)
  • Traits:FaunalBeds  + (Dense aggregation of animals that visually dominate the seabed or shore such as brittlestars (e.g. ''Ophiothrix fragilis'' ) or mussels (e.g. ''Mytilus edulis'').)
  • Traits:CoralSands  + (Deposition of sands formed by the breakdown to the skeletons of living organisms)
  • Traits:Dependancy  + (Description of an organism's relationship with other organisms)
  • Traits:DiapauseStage  + (Description of dormant stage)
  • Traits:SedimentReworking  + (Description of how an organism modifies or changes the physico-chemical nature of the habitat itself, e.g sediment reworking, deposition of faeces, or burrowing)
  • Traits:LarvalJuvenileDevelopment  + (Description of how the larvae or juveniles develop into adults)
  • Traits:FeedingApparatus  + (Description of the apparatus (mechanism) used to collect/capture food)
  • Traits:Lifestage  + (Description of the larval and juvenile stages in the life cycle of an organism)
  • Traits:Fertilization  + (Description of the location of fertilization, whereby in animals/macroalgae a gametes are fertilized or in plants pollination occurs.)
  • Traits:LarvalSettlement  + (Description of the period of time over which larval settlement occurs.)
  • Traits:FoodTypeDiet  + (Description of the source of the organisms nurishment, i.e. what it feeds on)