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A list of all pages that have property "Definition" with value "Half cone with flattened ellipsoid (Olenina ''et al.'', 2006)". Since there have been only a few results, also nearby values are displayed.

Showing below up to 251 results starting with #1.

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List of results

  • Traits:Conaria  + (Early larval stage in siphonophores, composed of a floating colony with disc-shaped float, and consists of a hollow sphere with aboral thickening (Stachowitsch, 1992).)
  • Traits:Oviparous  + (Egg laying; producing eggs that are laid and hatch externally (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
  • Traits:External  + (Egg/sperm meet and fertilize externally to parental individuals, tissues or confines of their bodies, but within the fluid medium)
  • Traits:NoOviparousCare  + (Eggs are laid and abandoned by adult)
  • Traits:AdultBurrow  + (Eggs are placed or retained within the parents burrow)
  • Traits:BroodChamber  + (Eggs retained by adult, usually in specialised cavity/appendage where the eggs develop to larval or juvenile stage)
  • Traits:FreeWaterColumn  + (Eggs spawned into water column)
  • Traits:Lagoon  + (Enclosed bodies of water, separated or partially separated from the sea by shingle, sand or sometimes rock and with a restricted exchange of water with the sea, yielding varying salinity regimes.)
  • Traits:Phagocytosis  + (Engulfing prey/food item in cytoplasm)
  • Traits:CapitateClubbed  + (Enlarged or swollen at the apex, with a ‘head’, clubbed (Prescott, 1969).)
  • Traits:Bathylpelagic  + (Extends from ca 1000-2500 m.)
  • Traits:Planktotrophic  + (Feeding at least in part on materials captured from the plankton (Barnes ''et al.'', 1993).)
  • Traits:Grazer  + (Feeding on herbage, algae or phytoplankton by consuming the whole plant or the surface growth (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998))
  • Traits:Browser  + (Feeding on parts of plants (e.g. shoots, leaves, twigs) or parts of other organisms (e.g. siphon nipping by fish). (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
  • Traits:Internal  + (Fertilization (gametes meet) within the body (or body cavity or accessory organ) of the individual)
  • Traits:Distribution Descriptors  + (Fields and traits that describe the distribution of the species.)
  • Traits:Cypris  + (Final lecithotrophic larval stage, characterized by bivalved carapace, compound eyes, prehensile antennules and thoraic appendages (cirri) (see Stachowitsch, 1992).)
  • Traits:Auricularia  + (First free-swimming larval stage of the Holothuroidea. It is characterized by a continuous and curving flagellated band (Stachowitsch, 1992).)
  • Traits:Bipinnaria  + (First of the two free-swimming larval forms in the asteroids, characterized by a ciliary band and the presence of arm-like projections (Stachowitsch, 1992; Ruppert & Barnes, 1994).)
  • Traits:TypeV  + (First-order opportunistic species (pronounced unbalanced situations). These are deposit- feeders, which proliferate in reduced sediments.)
  • Traits:TaxonSpecificBodySizeFish  + (Fish measurement is the measuring of the length of individual fish and of various parts of their anatomy. These data are used in many areas of ichthyology, including taxonomy and fisheries biology. (Wikipedia))
  • Traits:Pisciform  + (Fish-like)
  • Traits:FlattenedEllipsoid  + (Flattened ellipsoid (Olenina ''et al.'', 2006))
  • Traits:Chains  + (Forming chains of individuals)
  • Traits:CrustoseHard  + (Forming or resembling a crust (Thompson, 1995) that is solid or resistant to touch or pressure e.g. encrusting coralline algae or sea mats such as ''Umbonula littoralis''.)
  • Traits:CrustoseSoft  + (Forming or resembling a crust (Thompson, 1995) that yields to the touch or pressure e.g. the gelatinous colonies of ''Botryllus schlosseri'' or soft cushions of sponges such as ''Halichondria'' sp.)
  • Traits:Encrusting  + (Forms or resembles a crust over a substratum or other organisms)
  • Traits:Zoea  + (Fourth free-swimming larval stage of Decapoda, with thoracic appendages for locomotion (see Stachowitsch, 1992).)
  • Traits:FreeLiving  + (Free living - little modification)
  • Traits:Copepodid  + (Free swimming larval stage, typically with five sub-stages, characterized by excretion through maxillary glands, and progressive increase in number of body segments and posterior appendages (see Stachowitsch, 1992).)
  • Traits:Cyphonautes  + (Free-swimming bryozoan larva, the body is triangular, compressed and enclosed in a bivalve shell (see Ruppert & Barnes, 1994).)
  • Traits:GoettesLarva  + (Free-swimming four armed (lobed) ciliated larva of Platyhelminthes (see Ruppert & Barnes, 1994).)
  • Traits:Tronchophore  + (Free-swimming larva characterised by apicla tuft of cilia and a girdle of cilia around the midregion (see Stachowitsch, 1992, Rupert & Barnes, 1996).)
  • Traits:Echinopluteus  + (Free-swimming larva of Echinoidea, distinguished by six pairs of arms, supported by skeletal rods (see Ruppert & Barnes, 1994; Stachowitsch, 1992).)
  • Traits:Nauplius  + (Free-swimming larva, with a characteristic triangular shape, rostral horns in some, three pairs of appendages, and sometimes a nauplia eye. The number of nauplius stages varies between groups (see Stachowitsch, 1992).)
  • Traits:Ophiopluteus  + (Free-swimming larvae of Ophiuroidea, distinguished by four pairs of arms supported by skeletal rods (Stachowitsch, 1992).)
  • Traits:Cydippid  + (Free-swimming spherical larva, composed of a simple gastrovascular system and short comb-rows; resembles typical adult ctenophore (see Stachowitsch, 1992, Ruppert & Barnes, 1994).)
  • Traits:Pilidium  + (Free-swimming, helmet-shaped, larva of nemerteans (ribbon worms) with an apical tuft, apical sensory organs, oral lobes and oral ciliated band (see Stachowitsch, 1992, Rupert & Barnes, 1996).)
  • Traits:Coronate  + (Free-swimming, lecithotrophic larva of Bryozoa)
  • Traits:UltraSheltered  + (Fully enclosed coasts with a fetch measured in tens or at most a few hundred metres.)
  • Traits:ExtremelySheltered  + (Fully enclosed coasts with a fetch of no more than about 3 km.)
  • Traits:Ovoviviparous  + (Fully formed eggs are retained and hatched inside the maternal body and are released as live offspring (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998). No nutrition is derived from the mother.)
  • Traits:Isogamous  + (Gametes similar in size, shape and behaviour, not differentiated into male or female (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998))
  • Traits:ModeratelyExposed  + (Generally coasts facing away from prevailing winds and without a long fetch but where strong winds can be frequent.)
  • Traits:GrazerBrowser  + (Generally mobile consumers of sessile prey (e.g. plants, hydroids) cropping exposed tissues usually without killing the whole individual or colony.)
  • Traits:SeaLoch  + (Glacially formed inlets (fjords, fjards) of western Scotland and Ireland; typically elongate and deepened by glacial action with little freshwater influence. Often with narrows and sills dividing the loch into a series of basins.)
  • Traits:MuddyGravel  + (Gravel (30-80%) with mud (see Long, 2006))
  • Traits:MuddySandyGravel  + (Gravel (30-80%) with mud and sand (see Long, 2006))
  • Traits:Seagrass  + (Habitat associated with seagrass bed communities.)
  • Traits:UnderBoulders  + (Habitat associated with the underside of boulders.)
  • Traits:Biogenic  + (Habitat features created by living things)
  • Traits:HalfCone  + (Half cone (Olenina ''et al.'', 2006))
  • Traits:HalfParallelepiped  + (Half parallelepiped (Olenina ''et al.'', 2006))
  • Traits:HalfSphereDome  + (Half sphere (dome))
  • Traits:Isomorphic  + (Haploid and diploid phases morphologically identical)
  • Traits:Arrhenotoky  + (Haploid males develop from unfertilized eggs and diploid females from fertilized eggs (adapted from Lincoln 'et al.'', 1998).)
  • Traits:SupportingStructuresEnclosures  + (Hard framework, internal or external, which supports and protects softer parts of plant, animal or unicellular organism, and to which muscles usually attach in animals, includes skeletons (derived from Lawrence, 2005).)
  • Traits:Hard  + (Hard substratum e.g. bedrock, concrete, boulders,cobbles and pebbles)
  • Traits:Shrub  + (Having a very short stem with branches near the ground (Thompson, 1995).)
  • Traits:Anisogamous  + (Having flagellate gametes of different size, shape or behaviour (from Bold, 1977 and Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
  • Traits:Oogamous  + (Having large, non-motile eggs and small motile sperm (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
  • Traits:Digitate  + (Having parts arranged like fingers on a hand (Holmes, 1979).)
  • Traits:Gonochoristic  + (Having separate sexes/genders (Barnes ''et al.'', 1993).)
  • Traits:Tadpole  + (Having the body form of a tadpole i.e. consisting of a round head with a tail.)
  • Traits:ArborescentArbuscular  + (Having the shape or characteristics of a tree.)
  • Traits:HeightAboveSubstratum  + (Height above the surface of the substratum of an individual or single modular colony. e.g a blade of seagrass, a seaweed thallus, projecting tube worm, upright sea pen etc.)
  • Traits:SequentialHermaphrodite  + (Hermaphrodite in which the male and female organs mature (that is produce gametes) at different times in the reproductive cycle (adapted from Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998))
  • Traits:HardImmobile  + (Immobile hard substratum e.g. solid rock, concrete but including soft rocks, such as chalk.)
  • Traits:Wingspan  + (In birds (Aves) - "the distance between th
    In birds (Aves) - "the distance between the wing tips when the wings are held outstretched" (Wikipedia) or "wingtip to wingtip in flight" (BTO). In winged insects (Insecta) - "may refer to the distance between the centre of the thorax to the apex of the wing doubled or to the width between the apices with the wings set with the trailing wing edge perpendicular to the body" (Wikipedia) Note: For wingspan you can specify the measurement type (minimum, maximum, average), gender (male, female) and life stage.
    ge), gender (male, female) and life stage.)
  • Traits:Pathway/vector Other  + (In cases where pathway/vector is not specified/ cases of novel pathways/vectors.)
  • Traits:ParallelepipedRhomboid  + (In geometry, a parallelepiped is a three-dimensional figure formed by six parallelograms (the term rhomboid is also sometimes used with this meaning))
  • Traits:Reticulate  + (In the form of a mesh or net (Prescott, 1969).)
  • Traits:Straplike  + (In the form of a strap or ribbon.)
  • Traits:Whiplike  + (In the form of a whip.)
  • Traits:Kleptoparasitism  + (In which the female of one species steals the food reserves or prey of a female of another species, to feed her own progeny (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998))
  • Traits:NonSelfing  + (Incapable of self-fertilization, due to physical or temporal separation of gametes, and/or self-incompatability genes)
  • Traits:Independant (Free living)  + (Independant, individual organisms)
  • Traits:Territorial  + (Independent but maintains a defined territory)
  • Traits:NonTerritorial  + (Independent without a defined territory)
  • Traits:Impact  + (Information on the impact of introduced an
    Information on the impact of introduced and invasive marine species has been recorded. These include impacts on native species, their habitats and ecosystems, human health and activity, transmission of diseases, etc. Descriptive terms of impacts were standardized and listed in a look-up table. These terms have been adapted from Hayes (2005).
    terms have been adapted from Hayes (2005).)
  • Traits:Articulate  + (Jointed, arthrous (Holmes, 1979).)
  • Traits:Lanceolate  + (Lance shaped and usually elongate (Brusca, 1980).)
  • Traits:LargeInsectColonies  + (Large colonies of indivduals cooperating for mutual benefit, made up of thousnads or more individuals, often with a dominant matriach, e.g. social incests , bees etc.)
  • Traits:Protonymphon  + (Larval pycnogonid that bears three pairs of appendages, the chelicerae, palps and ovigerous legs (Ruppert & Barnes, 1996).)
  • Traits:Clathrate  + (Latticed (Holmes, 1979).)
  • Traits:Intermediary  + (Liable to suffer minor damage, chips or cracks as result of physical impacts.)
  • Traits:Fragile  + (Likely to break, or crack as a result of physical impact; brittle or friable.)
  • Traits:Hyperbenthic  + (Living above but close to the substratum (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
  • Traits:Solitary  + (Living alone, not gregarious (Thompson 1995).)
  • Traits:Demersal  + (Living at or near the bottom of a sea or lake but having the capacity for active swimming (from Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
  • Traits:Gregarious  + (Living in groups or communities, growing in clusters (Thompson, 1995) - where the organisms actively seek out members of the same species as adult or larvae/juveniles for protection from the environment, predators or for breeding)
  • Traits:Plankton  + (Living in the fluid medium (water or air) but unable to maintain their position or distribution independently of the movement of the water/air mass (adapted from Lincoln <i>et al.</i>, 1998).)
  • Traits:Neustonic  + (Living on or under the surface film of open water.)
  • Traits:Epizooic  + (Living on the exterior of a living animal but not parasitic upon it.)
  • Traits:Epiphytic  + (Living on the surface of a living plant but not parasitic upon it.)
  • Traits:Epilithic  + (Living on the surface of rock or other hard inorganic substrata)
  • Traits:Epibenthic  + (Living on the surface of the seabed.)
  • Traits:Pleustonic  + (Living permanently at the water surface due to their own buoyancy, normally positioned partly in the water and partly in the air.)
  • Traits:Endozoic  + (Living within the body of an animal (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
  • Traits:Interstitial  + (Living within the system of cavities and channels formed by the spaces between grains in a sediment (interstitial space).)
  • Traits:Macroalgae  + (Macroalgal surfaces, such as kelps and fucoids.)
  • Traits:Maerl  + (Maerl beds formed by build up of maerl.)
  • Traits:BodyAlgalGravel  + (Maerl; twig-like unattached (free-living) calcareous red algae, often a mixture of species and including species which form a spiky cover on loose small stones - 'hedgehog stones'.)
  • Traits:Erect  + (Main visible parts of organism stand upright and above the surface of the substratum.)
  • Traits:Spermcast  + (Male gametes are spawned and fertilize eggs within or attached to parent)
  • Traits:PseudoArrhenotoky  + (Males develop from diploid fertilized eggs but subsequently eliminate or silence the paternal genome)
  • Traits:Multivoltine  + (Many generations per year (Barnes ''et al.'', 2006).)
  • Traits:Depth  + (Maximum recorded depth below chart datum (expressed in metres).)
  • Traits:Bodylength  + (Maximum recorded linear body length (in millimetres) excluding appendages.)
  • Traits:DepthRange  + (Maximum to minimum recorded depth (expressed as metres below chart datum).)
  • Traits:DeOxygenationTolerance  + (Min Value)
  • Traits:TempRange  + (Min/Max Value)
  • Traits:Mixed  + (Mixtures of a variety of sediment types, composed of pebble / gravel / sand / mud. This category includes muddy gravels, muddy sandy gravels, gravelly muds, and muddy gravelly sands.)
  • Traits:HardMobile  + (Mobile hard substratum, e.g. cobbles, pebbles that are regularly moved by wave action.)
  • Traits:BitingMacerating  + (Mouth parts designed to grasp and macerate food before swallowing (e.g. most vertebrates))
  • Traits:BitingPiercing  + (Mouth parts designed to pierce outside of food or prey and feed on internal fluids or tissues)
  • Traits:PassiveDrifter  + (Movement dependent on wind or water currents)
  • Traits:SandyMud  + (Mud (50-90%) with sand)
  • Traits:MudSandyMud  + (Mud and sandy muds where mud is the major fraction (see Long, 2006))
  • Traits:GravellyMud  + (Mud with 5-30% gravel (see Long, 2006))
  • Traits:VeryWeak  + (Negligible)
  • Traits:Nonfeeding  + (Non-feeding life stages (e.g. lecithotroph))
  • Traits:Sessile  + (Non-motile; permanently attached at the base (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998) (e.g. ''Caryophyllia'').)
  • Traits:ClutchSize  + (Number of eggs laid at one time - in organisms that may lay eggs in one or more batches.)
  • Traits:Fecundity  + (Number of eggs reported produced per female per reproductive cycle.)
  • Traits:AutomicticParthenogenesis  + (Obligate self-fertilization (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998) in which haploid eggs /gametes are produced by meiosis but diploidy is restored without fertilization.)
  • Traits:BurrowDweller  + (Occupies or shares space in burrow constructed by other organisms.)
  • Traits:Hadobenthic  + (Occupying the ocean floor at depths exceeding ca 6000 m. Usually in trenches and canyons of the abyssal zone. (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
  • Traits:Bathybenthic  + (Occupying the ocean floor from ca 200 - 4000 m depth (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
  • Traits:Abyssobenthic  + (Occupying the ocean floor from ca 4000 - 6000 m depth. Usually a more or less flat plain (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
  • Traits:NoViviparousCare  + (Offspring are abandoned by the adult)
  • Traits:ViviparousCare  + (Offspring are nurtured and protected by the adult)
  • Traits:Semivoltine  + (One generation every two years (Barnes ''et al.'', 2006).)
  • Traits:Univoltine  + (One generation per year / annuals (Barnes ''et al.'', 2006).)
  • Traits:Pathways/vector  + (One of the most important types of informa
    One of the most important types of information in the practical approach to prevention and management of biological invasions is the identity of the pathways of introduction and details of vectors. These are necessary for the prevention of introduction of potentially invasive species and also for the containment of further spread of established invasions. Information on pathways and vectors of introduction of alien species has been recorded for the listed species where information was available. Descriptive terms describing pathways and vectors were standardized and listed as a look-up table. These terms have been adapted from Hayes (2005).
    terms have been adapted from Hayes (2005).)
  • Traits:ExtremelyExposed  + (Open coastlines which face into the prevai
    Open coastlines which face into the prevailing wind and receive both wind-driven waves and oceanic swell without any offshore obstructions such as islands or shallows for several thousand kilometres and where deep water is close to the shore (50 m depth contour within about 300 m).
    e (50 m depth contour within about 300 m).)
  • Traits:Oceanic  + (Open waters beyond the continental shelf.)
  • Traits:Hadopelagic  + (Open waters of deep oceanic trenches, from ca 6000 m and below.)
  • Traits:Jumper/Hopper  + (Organisms able to undertake a rapid jump or hop several times their own body length, using specialised limbs or appendages (e.g. sand hoppers, spring tails, grass hoppers etc))
  • Traits:Colonial (e.g. sea birds)  + (Organisms that come together in large colonies (100 plus individuals) - often in the same area from season to season - usually for breeding purposes)
  • Traits:Regenerator  + (Organisms that excavate and maintain burrows in the sediment, which result in sediment transport from depth to the surface (adapted from Kristensen ''et al.'', 2012.)
  • Traits:Unitary  + (Organisms that grow by a determinate pathway of development of a tightly canalized adult form, e.g. all arthropods and vertebrates (from Begon ''et al.'', 2005).)
  • Traits:Modular  + (Organisms that grow by the repeated iterat
    Organisms that grow by the repeated iteration of parts, e.g. the leaves, shoots and branches of a plant, the polyps of a coral or bryozoan. Modular organisms are almost always branched, though the connections between branches may separate or decay and the separated parts may in many cases then become physiologically independent (Begon ''et al.'', 2005).
    ally independent (Begon ''et al.'', 2005).)
  • Traits:BlindEndedVentilation  + (Organisms that live in 'I' or 'J' shaped burrows open at only one end where water is drawn through or diffuses out of the sediment e.g. ''Arenicola marina'' (adapted from Kristensen ''et al.'', 2012).)
  • Traits:OpenEndedVentilation  + (Organisms that live in a 'U' or 'Y' shaped burrow where water is drawn through the burrow (adapted from Kristensen ''et al.'', 2012).)
  • Traits:DownwardConveyor  + (Organisms that live vertically in the sediment, typically heads-up at the surface, and that ingest particles at the surface and egest them as faeces at depth in the sediment (adapted from Kristensen ''et al.'', 2012).)
  • Traits:UpwardsConveyor  + (Organisms that live vertically in the sediment, typically head-down at depth in the sediment, and that transport particles from depth to the sediment surface (adapted from Kristensen ''et al.'', 2012).)
  • Traits:SuspensionFeeder  + (Organisms that strain food from the surrounding water. They can range in complexity from sponges and corals to baleen whales. They live on organisms or debris that drifts past them, or they seek out small floating or swimming organisms (Charton, 2001).)
  • Traits:Biodiffusor  + (Organisms whose activities that cause cons
    Organisms whose activities that cause constant and random local sediment biomixing over short distances resulting in transport of sediment particles, analogous to molecular or eddy diffusion (from Kristensen ''et al.'', 2012). Includes epifaunal biodiffusers e.g. fiddler crabs; surficial biodiffusers e.g. ''Echinocardium''; and gallery biodiffusers e.g. ''Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor''.
    rs e.g. ''Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor''.)
  • Traits:AccessoryFeedingStructures  + (Other structures such as palps, tentacles
    Other structures such as palps, tentacles or a radiolar crown ("grooved palps"). There are forms of single pair of grooved palps nearly always attached dorsally or near the junction of the prostomium and peristomium, or multiple grooved palps sometimes forming a crown. Dorso lateral ciliated folds in the roof of the buccal cavity may be present in some polychaetes.
    cavity may be present in some polychaetes.)
  • Traits:BodyShape  + (Overall shape of the individual or colony (modular forms))
  • Traits:Abyssopelagic  + (Overlays the plains of the major ocean basins with a lower boundary of ca 6000 m.)
  • Traits:Ectoparasitic  + (Parasitic on the outer surface of its host (adapted from Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
  • Traits:Endoparasitic  + (Parasitic within the tissues or organs of its host (see Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
  • Traits:OviparousCare  + (Parents, guard or protect the eggs/clutch e.g. birds, some reptiles)
  • Traits:FineCleanSand  + (Particle size 0.063 - 0.5 mm (Hiscock, 1996))
  • Traits:MediumCleanSand  + (Particle size 0.25-1mm (Hiscock, 1996))
  • Traits:SedimentSoft  + (Particulate solid matter accumulated by natural processes (Hiscock, 1996))
  • Traits:Migratory  + (Periodic movement of organisms between alt
    Periodic movement of organisms between alternative habitats e.g. between areas for reproduction and one or more areas of non-reproductive activity, or between areas of foraging and areas used for other activities. Most migrations occur at predictable intervals triggered by stimuli e.g. unfavourable conditions. NB: Movements that do not include an obligatory return journey are classified as dispersal (Baretta-Bekker et al., 1992).
    s dispersal (Baretta-Bekker et al., 1992).)
  • Traits:Benthic  + (Pertaining to the sea bed, river bed or lake floor (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
  • Traits:Pelagic  + (Pertaining to the water column. Inhabiting the open sea, excluding the sea floor (rephrased from Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
  • Traits:EversiblePharynx  + (Pharynx can be everted to engulf and/or seize food items)
  • Traits:EnvironmentalPosition  + (Position relative to substratum or fluid medium (air/water).)
  • Traits:Megalopa  + (Post larval stage of decapod Crustacea (Stachowitsch, 1992).)
  • Traits:DispersalPotential  + (Potential for dispersal provided by one or more larval/juvenile stages, recorded in m, km.)
  • Traits:Predator  + (Predatory behaviour in which one animal species captures a member of another species (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998). OR mobile animals that attack kill and consume individual prey items, usually one at a time.)
  • Traits:IUCNRedList  + (Provides taxonomic, conservation status, and distribution information on taxa that are facing a high risk of global extinction.
  • Traits:SprayZone  + (Region of the shore immediately above the splash zone that is subject to wetting by the spray from breaking waves (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
  • Traits:SplashZone  + (Region of the shore immediately above the highest levels of the water that is subject to wetting by splash from breaking waves (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
  • Traits:NonMigratoryResident  + (Remaining within the same area (from Lincoln ''et al.'',1998).)
  • Traits:AsexualReproduction  + (Reproduction not involving the exchange of genetic material, amictic, individuals derived form a single parent (Barnes ''et al.'', 2006); not involving the fusion of gametes (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998))
  • Traits:ApomicticParthenogenesis  + (Reproduction via single cells /eggs that are derived by mitosis (Barnes ''et al.'', 1993) - amictic.)
  • Traits:Sporogenesis  + (Reproduction via spores)
  • Traits:Monoraphidioid  + (Resembling a crescent moon (see Olenina ''et al.'', 2006))
  • Traits:RotationalEllipsoid  + (Rotational ellipsoid (Olenina ''et al.'', 2006))
  • GravellyMuddySand  + (Sand (50-90%) with gravel (>5%) and mud (see Long, 2006))
  • Traits:MuddySand  + (Sand (50-90%) with mud (see Long, 2006))
  • Traits:GravellySand  + (Sand with 5-30% gravel (see Long 2006))
  • Traits:SandMuddySand  + (Sands and sands with mud where sand is the major fraction (see Long 2006))
  • Traits:IceAssociated  + (Sea ice, icebergs and other ice-associated marine habitats.)
  • Traits:OffshoreSeabed  + (Seabed beyond three miles (5 km) from the shore.)
  • Traits:Seizing  + (Seabird specific - probably not - large predators that pounce and grab also)
  • Traits:Diving  + (Seabird specific?)
  • Traits:Plunging  + (Seabird specific?)
  • Traits:FollowingFishingBoats  + (Seabirds)
  • Traits:FootPaddling  + (Seabirds/Wader)
  • Traits:FootStirring  + (Seabirds/Wader)
  • Traits:PickingfromWaterSurface  + (Seabirds/wader)
  • Traits:Swimming  + (Seabirds/wader)
  • Traits:Floating  + (Seabirds/wader)
  • Traits:Dabbling  + (Seabirds/waders?)
  • Traits:Doliolaria  + (Second free-swimming larvae (after the auricularia) in the Holothuroidea. It is characterized by a series of flagellated rings around a barrel-shaped body (Ruppert & Barnes, 1994; Stachowitsch, 1992).)
  • Traits:Metanauplius  + (Second larval stage in decapod Crustacea; resembles the nauplius but with more appendages (see Stachowitsch, 1992).)
  • Traits:TypeIV  + (Second-order opportunistic species (slight to pronounced unbalanced situations). Mainly small sized polychaetes: subsurface deposit-feeders, such as cirratulids.)
  • Traits:MucusMesh  + (Secretion of a simple or complex mucus mesh to filter food particles from water column (e.g polychaetes ''Chaetopterus'' and larvaceans.)
  • Traits:Ambusher  + (Sedentary or sessile predators, that wait for prey to come to them, and may or may not use a final pounce, traps or lures (e.g. sea anemones, large hydroids, spiders))
  • Traits:CoarseSediments  + (Sediments composed of gravel and sand; inc. gravel, gravelly sand and sandy gravel (Long, 2006))
  • Traits:Autotroph  + (Self-feeding. An organism capable of synthesizing complex organic substances from simple inorganic substrates (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
  • Traits:Flabellate  + (Shaped like a fan, fanlike (Brusca, 1980).)
  • Traits:FunnelShaped  + (Shaped like a funnel)
  • Traits:EggPropaguleSize  + (Size (diameter) of macrogamete (egg or ovum) in µm, mm, cm.)
  • Traits:Hydrostatic  + (Skeletal support provided by hydrostatic pressure from a fluid filled cavity (e.g. the coelum) surrounded by muscles. Hydrostatic pressure provides skeletal support in sea anemones, jellyfish, nematodes, annelids, echinoderms, and other groups.)
  • Traits:MixedCalcareousMaterial  + (Skeleton composed of a mixture of any of aragonite, calcite, high magnesium calcite or amorphous CaCO3)
  • Traits:CalcareousSkeleton  + (Skeleton composed of calcareous spicules (sponges/echinoderms), plates, spines, bones or other structures)
  • Traits:Filiform  + (Slender and thread-like (Kozloff, 1996).)
  • Traits:SmallTribePridePackPod  + (Small group of individuals that work together for mutual benefit, often held together by familial (matriarchal/patriarchal) bonds (e.g. a pack or wolves, a pod of dolphin, a pride of lions, a tribe of humans).)
  • Traits:Flaccid  + (Soft, limp, flabby (Brusca, 1980).)
  • Traits:Choanocytes  + (Special feeding cell of sponges)
  • Traits:Palps  + (Specialist - Protobranch molluscs)
  • Traits:GillRakers  + (Specialist - e.g. planktivorous fish such as basking shark)
  • Traits:Lophophore  + (Specialist - filter feeding organ e.g. brachiopods, phoronids, bryozoans)
  • Traits:PiercingToxic  + (Specialist - modified radula used to inject toxins, e.g. cone shells)
  • Traits:InhalentSiphon  + (Specialist - modified siphon to capture prey)
  • Traits:OralPodia  + (Specialist - modified tube feet in holothurians)
  • Traits:Radulae  + (Specialist - protrusile anterior region of digestive tract; refers to chitinized teeth along the radular membrane (Stachowitsch, 1992).)
  • Traits:AristolesLantern  + (Specialist - sea urchins)
  • Traits:FilerBasket  + (Specialist e.g. sea squirts)
  • Traits:Glochidium  + (Specialist larval form in some freshwater
    Specialist larval form in some freshwater bivalves, characterized by a bivalve shell, with or with a pair of hooks, and a long adhesive thread or tentacle. It lives as a temporary parasite on the gills or fins of fish. In some species a modified glochidium is termed a 'lasidium' before attachment and a 'haustorium' after attachment (Stachowitsch, 1992).
    um' after attachment (Stachowitsch, 1992).)
  • Traits:Detected in invasion pathway  + (Species detected in invasion pathways for example in ballast water, or as a hull-fouling organism.)
  • Traits:Management recorded  + (Species for which some management action including prevention has been recorded in its introduced range.)
  • Traits:TypeII  + (Species indifferent to enrichment, always present in low densities with non-significant variations with time (from initial state, to slight unbalance). These include suspension feeders, less selective carnivores and scavengers.)
  • Traits:Alien  + (Species introduced by man into places out of their natural range of distribution.)
  • Traits:Reported  + (Species that are 'reported' to be present but with no further information.)
  • Traits:Of concern  + (Species that are demonstrating aggressive spread and there is concern about its spread OR species where some concern has been recorded- this may be due to known records of its invasiveness and impacts in other areas of their known introduced range.)
  • Traits:Invasive  + (Species that are known to be invasive- those species in whose cases evidence of impact has been recorded or which is spreading aggressively.)
  • Traits:Present/controlled  + (Species that are known to be present in their introduced range and are subject to some control option.)
  • Traits:Sometimes present  + (Species that are reported as present but only 'sometimes'.)
  • Traits:MSFDIndicators  + (Species that comprise indicators or compon
    Species that comprise indicators or components of indicators for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (, with emphasis on Descriptors 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6.
    emphasis on Descriptors 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6.)
  • Traits:Not invasive  + (Species that has not demonstrated any invasive traits in its introduced range.)
  • Traits:Established and stable  + (Species that have become established in their introduced range but are not known to be spreading aggressively.)
  • Traits:Established and expanding  + (Species that have become established in their introduced range and are known to be increasing in abundance and expanding their range.)
  • Traits:Established  + (Species that have become established in their introduced range.)
  • Traits:Border Intercept  + (Species that have been intercepted at borders as a result of detection procedures.)
  • Traits:In captivity/cultivated  + (Species that have been introduced and maintained in captivity or cultivated for example those species that are farmed in aquaculture or mariculture facilities.)
  • Traits:Detected in the wild  + (Species that have been recorded as present in the wild with no further information.)
  • Traits:Eradication unconfirmed  + (Species that have been subject to an eradication event but have not been confirmed as eradicated.)
  • Traits:Eradicated  + (Species that have been subject to an eradication event and have been confirmed as eradicated.)
  • Traits:Recorded in error  + (Species that have reported or recorded in error.)
  • Traits:Native - Endemic  + (Species that is native and endemic to a country or sea area i.e. a species that is unique to a location or habitat.)
  • Traits:Native - Non-endemic  + (Species that is native to an area but is not endemic to it i.e. a species that has a wide native range.)
  • Traits:Native  + (Species that is native to the country or sea area.)
  • Traits:Extirpated  + (Species that were present but have been declared extinct.)
  • Traits:Absent  + (Species that were reported at some time to be present but were not recorded subsequently are reported to be ‘Absent’.)
  • Traits:TypeIII  + (Species tolerant to excess organic matter
    Species tolerant to excess organic matter enrichment. These species may occur under normal conditions, but their populations are stimulated by organic richment (slight unbalance situations). They are surface deposit-feeding species, as tubicolous spionids.
    t-feeding species, as tubicolous spionids.)
  • Traits:TypeI  + (Species very sensitive to organic enrichment and present under unpolluted conditions (initial state). They include the specialist carnivores and some deposit-feeding tubicolous polychaetes.)
  • Traits:Occurrence Not specified  + (Species which may be listed as alien or introduced but whose occurrence has not been specified.)
  • Traits:Origin uncertain  + (Species whose biological status is uncertain i.e. it is uncertain if the species is native or alien to the location.)
  • Traits:Invasiveness Uncertain  + (Species whose invasiveness is uncertain.)
  • Traits:Origin unknown  + (Species whose origins cannot be verified OR a species whose origin has not been specified in the source information.)
  • Traits:Introduction unverified  + (Species whose presence is uncertain, maybe reported as present anecdotally but not confirmed.)
  • Traits:Stacks  + (Stacks of indivudal cells/frustules (e.g. in diatoms), like a pack of cards.)
  • Traits:FoodPiracy  + (Stealing food from other birds in flight)
  • Traits:Lithotomous  + (Stone-boring; an organism that burrows into rock.)
  • Traits:CiliaFlagella  + (Swimming is effected by beating of cilia and or flagella; includes the fused cilia of Ctenophores.)
  • Traits:JetPropulsion  + (Swimming is effected by contraction of the body or body cavity to produce a 'jet' of water, e.g. medusae and cephalopods (from Barnes ''et al.'', 2006))
  • Traits:Muscular Contraction (body length)  + (Swimming is effected by muscular contractions along the length of the body, which may be aided by body protrusions or structures (e.g. parapodia, fins).)
  • Traits:AppendagesPaddles  + (Swimming is effected one or more pairs of appendages (legs or paddles) e.g. the pleiopods of Isopod, Amphipod or Decapod crustaceans, or the legs of amphibious vertebrates.)
  • Traits:Commensal (with/on/in)  + (Symbiosis (q.v.) in which one species derives benefit from a common food supply, whilst the other species is not adversely affected (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
  • Traits:Radial  + (Symmetrical about any plane passed perpendicular to the oral/aboral axis (Barnes ''et al.'', 1993).)
  • Traits:Stinging  + (Tentacles that bear stinging cells to catch, subdue prey (e.g. Cnidaria))
  • Traits:Grasping  + (Tentacles that grab and grasp food items)
  • Traits:StickyMucus  + (Tentacles used to collect particluate food (e.g. polychaete deposit feeders))
  • Traits:Introduced Species Catalog  + (Terms and definitions used in the World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRIMS).)
  • Traits:Invasiveness  + (Terms used to describe 'Invasiveness' of species.)
  • Traits:Occurrence  + (Terms used to describe 'Occurrence' of species.)
  • Traits:Origin  + (Terms used to describe the 'Origin' of species.)
  • Traits:FAOASFISSpeciesForFisheryStatisticsPurposes  + (The FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Statisti
    The FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Statistics and Information Service (FIPS) collates world capture and aquaculture production statistics at either the species, genus, family or higher taxonomic levels in 2 189 statistical categories (2013 data) referred to as species items. ASFIS list of species includes 12 600 species items selected according to their interest or relation to fisheries and aquaculture. For each species item stored in a record, codes (ISSCAAP group, taxonomic and 3-alpha) and taxonomic information (scientific name, author(s), family, and higher taxonomic classification) are provided. An English name is available for most of the records, and about one third of them have also a French and Spanish name. Information is also provided about the availability of fishery production statistics on the species item in the FAO databases.
  • Traits:HabitatsDirective  + (The Habitats Directive (Council Directive
    The Habitats Directive (Council Directive 92/43/EEC) ensures the conservation of a wide range of rare, threatened or endemic animal and plant species. Some 200 rare and characteristic habitat types are also targeted for conservation in their own right.
  • Traits:OSPARListOfThreatenedAndOrDecliningSpeciesAndHabitats  + (The OSPAR Biological Diversity and Ecosyst
    The OSPAR Biological Diversity and Ecosystems Strategy sets out that the OSPAR Commission will assess which species and habitats need to be protected. This OSPAR List of Threatened and/or Declining Species and Habitats has been developed to fulfil this commitment. It is based upon nominations by Contracting Parties and observers to the Commission of species and habitats that they consider to be priorities for protection.
  • Traits:AlternationOfGenerations  + (The alternation of generations, in the life cycle of an organism, that exhibit different modes of reproduction; typically sexual (diploid) and asexual (haploid) phases. Also termed metagenesis (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998) (e.g. ''Daphnia'', some rotifers))
  • Traits:LowerLittoralFringe  + (The bottom of the littoral fringe. In the
    The bottom of the littoral fringe. In the UK, characterized by he ''Pelvetia/Porphyra'' belt with patchy ''Verrucaria maura'' and ''Fucus spiralis'' (on sheltered shores). ''Verrucaria mucosa'' present above the main barnacle population. May also include salt marsh species on shale/pebbles in shelter (Hiscock, 1996).
    shale/pebbles in shelter (Hiscock, 1996).)
  • Traits:BuccalOrgansAbsent  + (The buccal cavity lacks obvious differentiation of the wall and it is not eversible. Some species if buccal cavity present at all, is only a transient larval structure and becomes completely occluded.)
  • Traits:DepthSubstratum  + (The depth within the substratum at which the organism is found (max recorded in metres).)
  • Traits:DispersalPotentialAdult  + (The distance over which the adult organism is able to roam, travel or disperse; the greatest potnetial or recorded distance. Does not acknowledge limitations due to geography, hydrography, or behavioural (territorial) constraints.)
  • Traits:MullersLarva  + (The free-swimming eight armed (lobed) ciliated larva of Platyhelminthes (see Rupert & Barnes, 1994).)
  • Traits:WidthOfDisc  + (The greatest distance between the lateral tips of the pectoral fins in Rajiformes. (FishBase))
  • Traits:UnderIce  + (The habitat formed by the underside of ice sheets at the interface of frozen ice and fluid seawater.)
  • Traits:SeaIce  + (The habitat provided by the surface of frozen sea water floating on the surface. Sea ice may form thin sheets, fast moving pieces, pack ice or large icebergs.)
  • Traits:Heteromorphic  + (The haploid and diploid phases are different in size and body shape; the gametophyte is often diminutive (small to microscopic).)
  • Traits:TidalStrength  + (The horizontal movement of water associate
    The horizontal movement of water associated with the meteorological, oceanographical and topographical factors. High water flow rates result in areas where water is forced through or over restrictions for example narrows or around protruding offshore rocks. Tidal streams are associated with the rise and fall of the tide where as currents are defined as residual flow after the tidal element is removed (Hiscock, 1996).
    tidal element is removed (Hiscock, 1996).)
  • Traits:Diameter  + (The length of a straight line passing from side to side through the centre of a body or figure, especially a circle or sphere. Note: For diameter you can specify the measurement type (minimum, maximum, average), gender (male, female) and life stage.)
  • Traits:LowerLittoral  + (The lower part of the shore only exposed (emersed) at the lowest part of the tide.)
  • Traits:Turf  + (The lowest stratum of erect branching or filiform species.)
  • Traits:GenerationTime  + (The mean period of time between reproduction by parent generation and the reproduction of the first filial generation (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998); recorded in years.)
  • Traits:TaxonSpecificBodySize  + (The measure of body size specific to a taxonomic group.)
  • Traits:LowerInfralittoral  + (The part of the infralittoral subzone whic
    The part of the infralittoral subzone which, on hard substrata, supports scattered kelp plants (a kelp park) or from which kelps are absent altogether and the seabed is dominated by foliose red and brown algae. It may be difficult to distinguish the lower infralittoral where grazing pressure prevents the establishment of foliose algae (based on Hiscock, 1985).
    of foliose algae (based on Hiscock, 1985).)
  • Traits:UpperInfralittoral  + (The part of the infralittoral subzone which, on hard substrata, is dominated by Laminariales forming a dense canopy, or kelp forest (based on Hiscock, 1985).)
  • Traits:Epipelagic  + (The photic zone, includes the open ocean influenced by light.  The lower boundary is dependent on the depth of light penetration and is generally regarded extend to ca 200 m in depth.)
  • Traits:MuscularAxialProboscis  + (The proboscis has thickened, strongly musc
    The proboscis has thickened, strongly muscular walls and can be retracted into a sheath. In other cases the pharynx is partially retracted and partially inverted. The mouth proper is located at the tip of the pharynx when fully everted. While some taxa have a jaw-less proboscis, others have jaws present as a bilaterally arranged pair, as one or two dorso-ventrally arranged pairs or as two pairs forming a cross.
    ged pairs or as two pairs forming a cross.)
  • Traits:Salinity  + (The range of salinities in which the organism is recorded (scale taken from Reusser & Lee, 2011))
  • Traits:Adult  + (The reproductively capable (mature), fully formed, usually longest lived, stage of an animals life cycle.)
  • Traits:Brachioloaria  + (The second the two free-swimming larval forms in the asteroids, characterized by the appearance of three adhesive arms at the anterior end (Ruppert & Barnes, 1994; Stachowitsch, 1992).)
  • Traits:Pelagosphaera  + (The secondary free-swimming larva in Sipunculida, that develops from a non-feeding trochophore (Ruppert & Barnes, 1994).)
  • Traits:LifeCycle  + (The stages an organism passes through between the production of gametes by one generation and production of gametes by the next generation (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998))
  • Traits:Circalittoral  + (The subzone of the rocky sublittoral below
    The subzone of the rocky sublittoral below that dominated by algae (the infralittoral), and dominated by animals. No lower limit is defined, but species composition changes below about 40m to 80m depth, depending on depth of the seasonal thermocline. This subzone can be subdivided into the upper circalittoral where foliose algae are present and the lower circalittoral where they are not (see Hiscock, 1985). The term is also used by Glémarec (1973) to refer to two étages of the sediment benthos below the infralittoral: a "coastal circalittoral category with a eurythermal environment of weak seasonal amplitude (less than 10°C) varying slowly" and a "circalittoral category of the open sea with a stenothermal environment" (Hiscock, 1996).
    onment" (Hiscock, 1996).)
  • Traits:OtherSpecies  + (The surface of other species, e.g. shells or carapace.)
  • Traits:CementedAttached  + (The surface or body part to which eggs are attached by the parent)
  • Traits:Mesopelagic  + (The upper aphotic zone and extends to a depth of ca 1000 m.)
  • Traits:SublittoralFringe  + (The upper part of the sublittoral zone whi
    The upper part of the sublittoral zone which is uncovered by the tide. On hard substrata, the zone is characterized by the kelps ''Laminaria digitata'' and ''Alaria esculenta''. The lower limit of this zone is marked by the upper limit of the truly sublittoral kelp ''Laminaria hyperborea'' (based on Lewis, 1964; Hiscock, 1996).
    a'' (based on Lewis, 1964; Hiscock, 1996).)
  • Traits:VentralMuscularProboscis  + (The ventral and lateral walls of the buccal region are muscular and the lining is sclerotized into a varying number of eversible jaw pieces. The jaws are separated into a pair of ventral mandibles and two or more pairs of lateral maxillae.)
  • Traits:Protozoea  + (Third larval stage in Decapoda, characterized by antennal locomotion (see Stachowitsch, 1992))
  • Traits:Ships: general  + (This accounts for an invasive species which has been vectored by a ship but the exact mechanism of action (ie: ballast, hull or cargo) has been unidentified in the literature.)