DPSIR framework applied to global mercury pollution

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DPSIR framework – EEA

Relevant Driving forces and Pressures on the environment, the consequent State of the environment and its Impacts, and the Responses undertaken, and of interlinkages between each of these elements.

DPSIR.jpg


Drivers of mercury pollution

Agriculture and forestry; Traffic; Households and other consumer use; Industry IPPC categories; Industry SME and other non-IPPC categories; Solid waste disposal/treatment areas (landfill) and municipal waste incineration; Wastewater (sewage sludge applications); From contaminated land (historical pollution); Varied diffuse sources


Pressures of mercury pollution

Discharges to surface waters from point sources by:

  • effluent discharges wastewater and storm from households water uses and urban run-off
  • effluent discharges from industrial activities:direct (large industrial point sources) or via the sewage systems

Losses to soils from diffuse sources:

  • atmospheric deposition on soils
  • urban run-off, leaching from landfills and waste disposal sites
  • accidental leaching from drainage systems and infrastructures
  • accidental spills
  • natural sources

Losses to surface water from diffuse sources:

  • atmospheric deposition on surface water
  • urban run-off, leaching from polluted soils and landfills
  • polluted groundwater
  • accidental leaching from drainage systems and infrastructures
  • accidental spills
  • natural sources

Historical pollution

  • historical pollution from contaminated land
  • historical pollution from sediments

State changes of mercury pollution

Increased environmental concentrations on:

  • soils
  • water
  • sediments
  • biota
  • mercury transformation into more toxic forms, namely methylmercury
  • methylmercury bioaccumulation and biomagnification through trophic webs


Impacts of mercury pollution

Mercury contamination affects the ecosystems at different levels:

  • Ecological values
  • Economical values
  • Human health


Responses to mercury pollution

  • Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC)
  • Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive (91/271/EEC)
  • Bathing Water Directive (76/160/EEC)
  • Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive (96/61/EC)

References and external links

http://glossary.eea.europa.eu/EEAGlossary/D/DPSIR European Environment Agency

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercury_(element) Wikipedia

http://www.eper.ec.europa.eu/eper/default.asp European Pollutants Emissions Register

http://www.ec.gc.ca/MERCURY/EN/index.cfm Environment Canada (Conceptual models for Global mercury cycle, Global Mercury Budget and bioaccumulation in organisms)

http://glossary.eea.europa.eu/EPER2/M/Mercury_and_its_compounds European Environment Agency

http://www.epa.gov/mercury/ US Environmental Protection Agency

http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/tfacts46.html Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease and Registry


The main author of this article is Armando da Costa Duarte
Please note that others may also have edited the contents of this article.


19 Dec. 08, Duarte AC, E Pereira, AI Lillebø, M Otero, S Rodrigues, M Válega, JP Coelho, C Lopes, P Pato, Department of Chemistry, CESAM – Centre of Environmental and Marine Studies, University of Aveiro, Portugal. aduarte@ua.pt, eduper@ua.pt, lillebo@ua.pt, marta.otero@ua.pt, srodrigues@ua.pt, mvalega@ua.pt, jpcoelho@ua.pt, claudia.b.lopes@ua.pt, pedro.pato@ua.pt.