European coastal and marine observatories (2020)

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Joining research efforts is essential for taking full advantage of Europe’s rich capital of knowledge and experience of coastal zone processes and management. Although serious progress has been achieved in the predictive power of models to simulate coastal zone dynamics, calibration with field data remains necessary because we are still confronted with limitations in our understanding of the basic processes. Many natural processes are not reproducible in the laboratory; progress in basic understanding therefore depends crucially on field observations in contrasting coastal environments. Such comprehensive observational programmes are beyond the possibilities of single institutions or even beyond the possibilities of single countries. A coordinated effort at the European scale is required.

JERICO 2011-2019

The ENCORA Concerted Action formulated in its European Action Plan of 2008 a recommendation for the concerted development of a European network of Coastal and Marine Observatories. The recommendation was implemented by the European Commission in 2011 through the project JERICO: Joint European Research Infrastructure for Coastal Observatories, led by Ifremer (France). Around European coastal seas, the number of marine observing systems is quickly increasing under the pressure of both monitoring requirements and oceanographic research. Present demands for such systems include reliable, high-quality and comprehensive observations, automated platforms and sensors systems, as well as autonomy over long time periods. The main challenge of JERICO is to harmonize coastal observation systems in Europe, regarding the technical design, measured parameters, practices for maintenance and quality control, as well as quality standards for sensors and data exchange. JERICO therefore proposes a Pan European approach for a European coastal marine observatory network, integrating infrastructure and technologies such as moorings, drifters, ferrybox and gliders. Networking activities are implemented that will lead to the definitions of best practices for design, implementation, maintenance and distribution of data of coastal observing systems, as well as the definition of a quality standard.

JERICO 2020-2024

Recently (2020) the third phase of JERICO, JERICO-S3 has been approved by the European Commission with a budget of 10 million EUR for the period 2020-2024. JERICO-S3 aims to provide a state-of-the-art, fit-for-purpose and visionary observational research infrastructure, expertise and high- quality data on European coastal and shelf seas, supporting world-class research, high-impact innovation and a window of European excellence worldwide. It will:

  1. Provide services for the delivery of high-quality environmental data,
  2. Provide access to solutions and facilities as services for researchers and users,
  3. Create product prototypes for EU marine core services and users,
  4. Support excellence in marine coastal research to better answer societal and policy needs.

Data from the European coastal observatories can be accessed through the EMODNET portal and other European data portals, see Marine data portals and tools.

The major field observatories and related infrastructures participating in the JERICO network are shown in Fig. 1 and listed in the Table below. Not all European observatories participate in JERICO. Notable exceptions are observatories of the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland, Latvia and Lithuania.

Fig. 1 Location of field observatories participating in the JERICO network (august 2020). More detailed information can be found on the JERICO website.

Table 1. Major field observatories and infrastructures participating in the JERICO project. Information retrieved from the JERICO website, august 2020.
Region Name facility Location / route Description
Mediterranean Expandable Seafloor Observatory OBSEA Underwater observatory situated at Catalan Coast (near Barcelona) OBSEA is an underwater cabled observatory connected with 4 km of cable to the coast of Vilanova i la Geltrú (Barcelona, Spain) and placed at a depth of 20m in a fishing protected area. Operations are done by scuba divers and small boats. A surface buoy located at 40m from the underwater unit is an extension of OBSEA working as surface platform for measuring oceanographic and environmental parameters. A Shore Station provides power (3.6kW) to feed all the devices and the fiber optic link (1Gbps) to establish communications. At the same time from land we manage alarms and data storage. With a length of 1000 meters the terrestrial cable connects the Ground Station to the Beach Manhole where the submarine cable begins its route to the node location at 4 km from the coast and 20 m depth. OBSEA has nowadays two junction boxes with a total of 16 underwater webmate connectors.
SOCIB glider facility Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain The SOCIB Glider Facility is an example of new technologies being progressively implemented in coastal to open ocean regions allowing autonomous and sustained high-resolution monitoring of specific areas. The fleet in 2016 consists of 7 Slocum gliders and 2 iRobot Seagliders, equipped for collecting both physical (T, S) and biogeochemical data (fluorescence, oxygen, etc.) at high spatial resolutions (2km). SOCIB-GF includes a pressure chamber (1.000 m) as well as ballasting and operations labs. It also has access to other SOCIB facilities such as
  1. ETD (Engineering & Technology Development): Hurricane Zodiac 9.2 m RIB, Lab-Van and harbour warehouse;
  2. SOCIB-R/V: a 24 m coastal catamaran, and
  3. Data Center: including data management, public repository, on-line web-based platform tracker -for mission monitoring- and development of tools such as the glider processing toolbox.
Corsica Channel Mooring – MPLC (CoCM) Ligurian sea -Tyrrhenian sea The Corsica Channel Mooring is an underwater station at about 450 m depth moored between the islands of Capraia and Corsica, at the sill of the Corsica Channel. Operative since July 1985, it continuously measures ocean currents and thermohaline properties of water masses in predetermined depths, for the monitoring of the surface and the intermediate circulation of the Mediterranean Sea, and exchanges between the two adjacent basins (Tyrrhenian Sea and Ligurian Sea). The site is part of the CIESM Hydro-Changes Programme. Along the mooring chain, the automated imaging system (GUARD1/DEEP-EYE) installed in 2019 provides macrofauna images at different depths.
Sicily Channel Observatory-SiCO2 Strait of Sicily SiCO is a twin-mooring system placed in a key area connecting the Eastern and Western Mediterranean Sea. Equipped with current profilers and CTD probes, it continuously monitors surface and intermediate exchange of water masses and properties between the basins. A pCO2 probe is installed in SiCO1 near the bottom to widen the contribution of the observatory to climate studies and ocean acidification research.
CNRS-INSU Glider National Facility La Seyne sur mer, France The National Glider Facility (GNF) is held by DT-INSU. It is installed inside the Mediterranean Ifremer center and is part of the CETSM (European Centre of underwater technologies). GNF started in September 2008. It is manned by 3 engineers and 1 technician and operates 10 gliders. The facility is fully equipped with: a glider ballasting tank, an electronic lab for pre-deployment preparation, servers and communications devices for glider operations. It is linked to the web page offering a collaborative work environment and tools for piloting gliders. The following sensors can be mounted on the gliders: CTD, Oxygen Optode, Fluorimeters (ChlA, CDOM, Phycoerythrine, turbidity), Back scattering (470-880 nm).
Environmental Observatory Littoral (EOL) Coastal buoy at bay of Villefranche-sur-mer, Ligurian Sea Buoy equipped with a meteorological station, a winch dedicated to CTD (temperature and salinity at the moment, extension to other sensors in the future) profiles. Core oceanographic parameters (temperature, salinity, fluorescence, dissolved oxygen) are acquired with a SeaBird SBE19 on an hourly basis at a fixed depth (1.5 m). A fixed pH sensor is also deployed. Solar panels and a cabin large enough to install power hungry instruments and a profiler that allows measurements in the water column (80 m depth).
Acqua Alta Oceanographic Tower Northern Adriatic, Gulf of Venice Acqua Alta Oceanographic Tower is equipped with autonomous instrumentations covering atmospheric and hydrological parameters with a series of meteorological stations and oceanographic instruments. Measurements routinely acquired with periodic sampling concern biology, chemistry, physical oceanography. A direct view of the sea condition around the tower is available continuously by the three high resolution webcams installed on the roof. Two underwater webcams are installed at -3 and -12 m to observe biological populations and to monitor potentially critical phenomena such as jellyfish swarms and mucilaginous macro aggregates.
Meteoceanographic site S1-GB Offshore the Po river delta The station is made up by an elastic beacon, it consists of an aerial platform at 6.5 m asl, a steel pipe structure, a submerged float and an elastic joint for mooring to the sinker. The system has logging and NRT transmission devices, power systems with continuous voltage 12 and 24 VDC, meteorological station and double winch (connected to the submersed mooring) accommodating oceanographic instrumentation at different water levels (among them CTD probes, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, turbidity and CDOM sensors, ADCP). Additional measurements are routinely collected in the site with periodic sampling concerning biology, chemistry, oceanography.
OGS – MAMBO Miramare Buoy Adriatic near Trieste, Italy The MAMBO Miramare buoy site offers a multidisciplinary pilot platform suitable for the testing and experimentation of sensors and instrumentation. The buoy is easily accessible from the land and moored in a protected area, it has its own power supply by means of solar panels and batteries. The buoy is equipped with the following instrumentation with data in near real time:
  1. weather station R.M Young Company (wind speed and direction, temperature, pressure and humidity)
  2. system for the study of the carbon cycle, placed at a depth of 1.5m and consisting of pCO2 Pro-Oceanus sensor, Ph SeaFET sensor, CT SBE37-ODO with optical oxygen sensor.
  3. SBE16 multi-parameter probe, located at a depth of 10 m, consisting of CTD, dissolved oxygen sensor, ph, fluorescence, turbidity and irradiance;
  4. SBE16 multiparameter probe at a depth of 15 m consisting of CTD, dissolved oxygen sensor, and pH.
POSEIDON operational marine monitoring, forecasting and information system Greek Seas The observatory is a distributed infrastructure all over the Greek Seas including three coastal buoys (Saronikos buoy-SB, Heraklion Coastal Buoy-HCB and Athos buoy-AB) and one Ferrybox (PFB). A calibration laboratory is supporting the observing activities. The Athos buoy, equipped with meteo, T, C/S, wave sensors and current meter down to 100m in depth, is located in the coastal area in the Northern Aegean, representative of mesotrophic to oligotrophic conditions affected by circulation. Although coastal, the depth of the water column allows deeper observations.
  1. The Heraklion Coastal Buoy (35.391°N - 25.226°E, bottom depth 175 m) is equipped with meteo, T, C/S, wave sensors and current meter. The location is of particular interest as the coastal expression of the very oligotrophic Cretan Sea ecosystem, modulated by the moderate to small riverine inputs and the rural activities in the Northern Crete.
  2. The Saronikos buoy (37.611°N - 23.564°E, bottom depth 209 m) is equipped with meteo, T, C/S, wave sensors and current meter, is moored in one of the most eutrophic areas in Greece greatly affected by the effluents sewage treatment plant of Psitalia and the Anthropogenic activities in the wider Athens -Piraeus urban environment. HAB’s are frequent in some parts of the Gulf while clear trophic gradients are observed.
  3. The Ferrybox (route Heraklion – Piraeus) is installed on board H/S/F “Faistos Palace” and is equipped with sensors measuring T, C/S, DO, pH, pCO2, fluorescence and turbidity. It is the only Ferry Box in the East Mediterranean operating.
Atlantic Ifremer Metrology Laboratory Plouzané, France The metrology laboratory deals with the following parameters: temperature and pressure (Cofrac accreditation for these two parameters), conductivity/salinity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, pH and fluorescence. The laboratory is equipped with high quality reference devices (fresh water and seawater calibration baths, standard platinum resistance thermometers, direct current resistance comparator bridges, fixed point cells, gauge pressure balance, reference salinometer, reference materials for fluorescence and turbidity calibrations and spectrophotometric pHT bench).
MAREL Carnot system Boulogne-sur-Mer harbor, France The measuring station is equipped with high performance systems for seawater analysis and near real time data transmission. This system records with a high frequency resolution (20 minutes), the following parameters: estimated sea level, gust wind speed, wind from direction relative true north, horizontal wind speed, relative humidity, light irradiance surface PAR, sea temperature, practical salinity, ph, dissolved oxygen, fluorescence, turbidity. For nitrate + nitrite, phosphate, silicate parameters the sampling frequency is set to 12 hours.
SMILE buoy Luc sur Mer - Seine Bay, France The SMILE buoy consists of a moored buoy physico-chemical and biological sensors working in continuous and autonomous conditions. The system is located in the Seine Bay (eastern English Channel) influenced both by marine coastal and fresh waters. The measuring station provides near real time data transmission. This system records with a high frequency resolution (30 minutes), the following parameters at the surface: wind from direction relative true north, horizontal wind speed, relative humidity, aerial PAR, and 1.5m below surface : sea temperature, practical salinity, dissolved oxygen, fluorescence, turbidity.
SCENES Le Havre - Seine Estuary mouth, France This system records with a high frequency resolution (15 minutes) the following parameters at the surface: estimated sea level, wind from direction relative true north, horizontal wind speed, relative humidity, sea temperature, practical salinity, dissolved oxygen, fluorescence, turbidity. The benthic station records sea level, practical salinity, fluorescence and turbidity every 30 minutes. An ADCP provide a current velocity profile (every 30 minutes) and wave parameters (every hour).
Sediment Profile Imager UMR EPOC, Station marine d’Arcachon, France SPI-H allows for the in situ acquisition of sediment profile images in cohesive sediments, which constitutes a sound and cost-effective alternative to classical faunal analyses in assessing the ecological quality of benthic habitats . This piece of equipment exists in two versions: (1) for shallow bottom (i.e., down to 30 m) waters, which can be operated from small ships, and (2) for deep (i.e., down to 1000 m) waters, requiring the use of a large oceanographic ship.
Donostia buoy, EuskOOS HF radar Continental slope of SE Bay of Biscay offshore San Sebastian (Spain) Starting by a network of shallow waters coastal stations (water depth 20m), the observing system was extended offshore in 2007 through the mooring of the Donostia metocean buoy (located over the slope) and, in 2009, through the installation of a HF Radar system. The Donostia buoy is sending in NRT the following parameters: Spectral waves (wave height, period and direction, Sea water temperature and salinity and marine currents profiles down to 200 m water depth, Atmospheric pressure and temperature, Wind direction and intensity, Solar radiation. It is a unique operational platform providing high frequency (hourly) water column information from surface down to 200m with 7 TS Seabird SBE25 (transmitting in real-time through an inductive cable) and 1 RDI WS 300 looking downwards; and it is located in the centre of the EuskOOS Long Range HF Radar footprint.
MONIZEE(IH) buoys Buoys

NW Portugal (bottom depth 1600 m), W Portugal (bottom depth: 2000 m), W Portugal (bottom depth: 90 m), S Portugal

The multiparametric buoys network that is part of the MONIZEE monitoring infrastructure started to be implemented in 2009. It presently comprises 4 Fugro-Oceanor Wavescan buoys (depth 90m - 1334 m), 3 of each located along the Portuguese continental slope, from the Gulf of Cadiz area to the northwestern Portuguese margin, and 1 located at the mid-shelf in the area of Nazare Canyon. The multiparametric buoys provide hourly measurements of meteorological parameters, waves, water temperature and currents at several depths for typical periods of operations of 6 months between maintenance actions. Near surface fluorometry, dissolved oxygen and turbidity are also available for shorter periods after each maintenance action. Part of the data is transmitted by satellite to Instituto Hidrografico and disseminated through IH web page.
Plocan Test Site Northeast of Gran Canaria Island, Canary Islands, Spain PLOCAN is a multipurpose service centre with land- and sea-based novel infrastructures to support marine research, technology development and innovation. The centre provides a cost-effective combination of services, such as an observatory, a test site, a base for underwater vehicles, laboratories, training and an innovation hub. In addition PLOCAN is configured as a Marine Test Site available to projects focused on testing and demonstrating of all kinds of marine devices, like those related to marine renewable energy but also submarine and surface autonomous vehicles, fixed buoys and marine observatories, profilers and sensors. Observing systems and installations support the environmental monitoring needs of the Test Site. Some installations are shared with the deep and extended observatories (e.g. surface gliders, lab facilities, e-infrastructure).
  1. PLOCAN Test Site reserved area of 23 km2 with depths ranging from the coast to 600m managed by PLOCAN. It includes a multidisciplinary and permanent set of autonomous ocean observing platform and a subsea cable infrastructure prepared for the installation of ocean observing infrastructures.
  2. PLOCAN Platform (within Test Site area, located 1.5 km off the coast): A multipurpose autonomous ocean observing platform resting on the seabed over 30m depth, with several floors and up to 30m high. Observations are possible from this physical platform, which includes the access to power as well as high speed communication with PLOCAN onshore facilities.
  3. PLOCAN Coastal buoy (within Test Site at depths ranging 40-100m): Includes meteorological (air temperature, wind speed and direction, etc.) and oceanographic sensors in (sub) surface to measure variables like temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, CO2, Chla “a” and turbidity. Data is received on real time applying after the quality control. The continuous data is complemented with in situ discrete CTD/rosette sampling taken during cruises to measure physical and biogeochemical variables.
  4. PLOCAN Gliders: 4 units which are operational till depths of 1000m, specifically 2 Slocum G3 glider from Teledyne Marine, a Seaglider from Kongsberg Maritime and a SeaExplorer from Alseamar. All the gliders are equipped with sensors to collect water column profiles, i.e. CTD, oxygen, Chla “a” and turbidity, plus CDOM (Seaglider) and hydrocarbon (SeaExplorer). They have been used in multiple actions, among them the periodical seasonal missions to the oceanic ESTOC station (included in TNA of FixO3).
  5. PLOCAN Autonomous Surface Vehicles (ASVs): Two are available, specifically one Wave Glider SV2 from Liquid Robotics and a Sail Buoy from Offsore Sensing.
  6. PLOCAN Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV): Model Seabotix Vlbv-950 (deployable to 950 m.) manufactured by Seabotix. Payload: Bowtech camera HD b/n, Bowtech camera HD color, Tritech Micron MK3 sonar, arm 2GL. It is used for taking videos of ocean deployments and underwater behavior of sensors and devices.
  7. PLOCAN HF RADAR: Model Seasonde from CODAR, measures surface marine currents in the Test Site area.
SEADRONE research vessel Pasaia, Gipuzkoa, Spain Autonomous surface vessel equipped with echo sounder and a weather station for pelagic monitoring. Length: 190cm; Beam: 117cm; Draft: 50cm; Weight: 50kg; Electric propulsion (Speed: 3-4 knots). Endurance: >3 months (solar panels). Current services: Acoustic field surveys.
North Sea VLIZ coastal observatory Installations Belgian Part of the North Sea # Research Vessel Simon Stevin (Ferry Box / Automatic Underway Measuring System): Semi-continuous measurements are collected on a daily basis through the RV Simon Stevin underway system with the FCM, frrf, fluorometer, turbitidy, oxygen, temperature and salinity sensors.
  1. Thornton Buoy (N 51.58, E 2.995): Stationary offshore buoy close to the offshore wind farm Cpower, measuring semi-continuously pH, current, SPM, chlorophyll a, CO2, oxygen, salinity, temperature, depth. This measurement buoy is a ICOS Class 1 Ocean Station with real-time data transfer.
  2. Bottom moored tripods. Ten tripods are continuously deployed at fixed stations across the Belgian part of the North Sea and measure underwater ultra sound and porpoise echolocation. Tripods are equipped with acoustic release system and can be instrumented with additional sensors such as ambient low frequency hydrophones. Buoy locations: (51.366, 2.45), (51.300, 2.86), (51.230, 2.50), (51.483, 2.30) , (51.411, 2.81), (51.700, 2.81), (51.335, 2.60), (51.580, 2.99) , (51.640, 2.53), (51.460, 3.05).
  3. VLIZ regular sampling stations. About 18 stations on the Belgian part of the North Sea are visited for measurements and samples on a monthly or seasonal basis. Measurements include CTD temperature and salinity depth profiles, Fluorescence, nutrients, pigments, secchi depth, zooplankton observations (vpr, zooscan), phytoplankton (flowcam), etc. Location sampling stations: (51.185, 2.701), (51.308, 2.85), (51.433, 2.80), (51.333, 2.5), (51.376, 3.22), (51.440, 3.13), (51.471,3.058), (51.270, 2.905), (51.276,2.61), (51.566, 2.25), (51.800, 2.55), (51.458,2.35), (51.750,2.7), (51.683, 2.416), (51.588, 3.012), (51.480,2.45),(51.580, 2.790).
  4. Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV). USV is an autonaut watercraft that can fully autonomously perform scientific research of the atmosphere and water (surface) out at sea for weeks or even months straight. The USV can be deployed both nationally (Belgian part of the North Sea) as internationally. It can be launched from a beach, slipway or a research vessel. The USV is equipped to collect depth profiles of temperature and salinity (CTD), chl a, CDOM, turbidity, ADCP current.
  5. Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV). The VLIZ AUV is a Gavia from Teledyne that is operational till depths of 1000 meters. The AUV is used in both national and international waters. The robot can be deployed from a dock, a small RHIB or from a large research vessel. The AUV is equipped to collect depth profiles of temperature and salinity (CTD), CTD, oxygen, chl a, turbitidy, POM, ADCP, CO2, Nitrate, has a digital camera and a multibeam on board.
  6. Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV). The ROV Genesis is (l-w-h; 1.40 – 0.87 – 1.11m) deployable down to 1400m, and controlled by a pilot from a container mounted on the research vessel. Since 2015, the ROV Genesis is also deployed from the RV Simon Stevin for scientific campaigns in the shallow coastal water of the Belgian part of the North Sea taking bottom cores or mapping the sea bottom. The ROV is equipped with several lights, colour and black-and-white cameras, a working arm for simple samplings, and continuous registration of depth, course, height, swell, slope, temperature, turbidity and chlorophyll.
Installations IRSNB Belgian Part of the North Sea
  1. Research Vessel Belgica with a AUMS (automatic underway measuring system) and hull mounted ADCP.
  2. MOW1 Benthic Lander. Parameters measured are current velocity, S, T, SPM concentration, and Particle Size Distribution (PSD), fluorescence and turbulence.
COSYNA (Coastal Observation System for Northern and Arctic Seas) North Sea

COSYNA is an operational coastal monitoring, forecasting and information system for the North Sea composed by fixed platforms, FerryBoxes, gliders and HF-radar systems. It is being developed by institutes of the German Marine Research Consortium (KDM) and collaborating institutions and is operated by the HZG Research Centre. The infrastructure was built up since 2007 and is fully operational since 2012. COSYNA components:

  1. Underwater Node Helgoland, German Bight. COSYNA_UNH is a cabled underwater observatory operated by AWI together with HZG since 2012 and is providing power, network connection and server support for the permanent operation of in situ sensor systems. The node system has 10 underwater pluggable access points (for network (100 Mbit/ 1Gbit) and power (48V / 2.5 Amp) and is equipped with a standard sensor carrier with an ADCP) and a CTD plus Chl-a fluorescence, oxygen and turbidity sensors for basic oceanographic measurements. The 10 access points are fully remotely controlled.
  2. FerryBox; Route: Southern North Sea with different ports. COSYNA_FB is one of three FerryBox systems on different routes in the southern North Sea equipped with sensors T, C/S, turbidity, DO, pCO2, pH, chlorophyll-a-fluorescence, partly nutrients (NOx, NO2, PO4, SiO2) and a cooled water sampler. The first vessel is a ferry (FunnyGirl) and operates between Büsum and the island Helgoland from April to October on a daily basis, the second vessel (Hafnia Seaways) goes from Cuxhaven (DE) to Immingham (GB) ~6times/week year-round and the third vessel (Lysbris) cruises between Halden (NO), Zeebrugge (BL), Immingham (GB) and Moss (NO) year-round.
  3. COSYNA_GL glider. COSYNA_GL is one of the 2 gliders of the system (TWR Slocum Electric, 100 m) equipped with CTD, Wetlabs ECO puck FLNTU (fluorescence and turbidity) and CDOM fluorescence.
  4. Mobile Underwater Observatories (MUO) - flexible locations. COSYNA_MUO node system is under development (will be operational in 2020). It will provide power, network connection and server support for the permanent operation of in situ sensor systems (will have 6 underwater pluggable access points for network and power, and a standard sensor carrier with an ADCP, a CTD plus Chl-a fluorescence, O2 and turbidity sensors).
  5. Stationary FerryBox system at Cuxhaven. COSYNA_SFB is a Stationary FerryBox system, including self-cleaning features, installed in a container at the mouth of the Elbe River equipped with sensors T, C/S, turbidity, DO, pH, chlorophyll-a-fluorescence, CDOM fluorescence, nutrients (NOx, NO2, PO4, SiO2) and a cooled water sampler.
Northwest Atlantic CEFAS SmartBuoy monitoring network UK Waters and Warp, West Gabbard The CEFAS SmartBuoys are used to collect high-frequency timeseries of surface salinity, temperature, turbidity, oxygen saturation, chlorophyll fluorescence and nutrient concentrations. Data are returned to the laboratory in near real time. Water samples are collected and preserved onboard for later analysis of nutrients and phytoplankton species. The SmartBuoys are serviced 4 times a year during which samples are collected by rosette at the sites and on transects between the sites. Users would also be able to access the rosette for sampling. Water samples are collected and preserved onboard for later analysis of nutrients and phytoplankton species. Parameters: High-frequency NRT series of surface S, T, turbidity, O2 saturation, Chlophyll fluorescence and nutrient concentrations.
Ferrybox system on RV Cefas Endeavour In UK waters throughout the year System for autonomous, cost-efficient and continuous collection of sea surface oceanographic HF, high-resolution data: S, T, fluorescence, turbidity, flow cytometry. Data has been used within the eutrophication monitoring programme and as an essential component of fisheries surveys to study environmental drivers of small pelagic fishes (eggs, larvae and adults) with specific focus on S, T and Chl-a maps. The FerryBox system on RV Cefas Endeavour is used for autonomous and continuous collection of the sea surface oceanographic data. Core variables include sea surface salinity and temperature, turbidity, chlorophyll fluorescence, oxygen, nutrients and meteorological parameters. A flow cytometer could be connected if requested.
NIVA Research Station The Drøbak Sound in Oslo Fjord The Research Station performs large-scale experiments in marine ecology, sediment research, biogeochemistry, aquaculture and test technology for treating ballast water. The station has fiberglass and concrete seawater pools with volumes ranging from 20 to 550 m³. A number of smaller testing facilities on land and the seabed outside the station have been built to manipulate and control marine ecosystems. The station has 10 laboratories for experimentation and analysis activities, among them an authorized infection lab for fish and a special lab for working with radioactive tracers. Facilities at Solbergstrand cover e.g. hard-bottom and soft-bottom mesocosoms, brackish water systems, seaweed and kelp communities, pelagic communities from the upper water depths and continuous water supply from surface and 60 meter with measurements on temperature and salinity. For surface water additional sensor for Chl-a fluorescence are installed and for 60 m pH and pCO2.
(NRS) FerryBox and calibration laboratory Oslofjord Fixed station (NRS) with FerryBox that include a core sensor package with thermo-salinograph, inlet temperature sensor, O2, chl-a fluorescence, turbidity and system for water sampling; with additional sensors for PAH, phycocyanin, cDOM, pCO2, pH, and microplastics sampling units on some installations.
NorFerry/NorSOOP infrastructure Ferrybox systems in the North Sea, Atlantic Ocean, Norwegian Sea, and Arctic areas The NorFerry infrastructure TF and NO are installations on passenger vessels and a fixed station (NRS) with FerryBox systems that include a core sensor package with thermosalinograph, inlet temperature sensor, oxygen, chl-a fluorescence, turbidity and system for water sampling; with additional sensors for PAH, pycocyanin, cDOM, pCO2, pH, and microplastics sampling units on some installations. TF has radiometers for marine reflectance of the sea surface. The infrastructure is used for physical oceanography, pelagic biodiversity, chemical (contaminants), and biogeochemical (marine acidification) studies.
SmartBay Buoy Galway Bay, Ireland SMARTBUOY is an autonomous data buoy for testing environmental and meteorological sensors and to efficiently collect metocean time series. All data is transferred via a variety of wireless communication options and onto users through an online data portal or specialized access. Different mooring designs are adaptable to any specific testing environment; the buoy allows for easy integration of sensors and instruments into the available power and data transmission facilities, with deployment in air, at the ocean surface or deeper in the water column.
Ocean energy test site Galway Bay, Ireland SmartBay cabled underwater observatory has been operational since August 2015. The observatory includes a fibre optic data and power cable, a sub-sea sensor hosting platform (node) and a floating sea laboratory (SeaStation) which will be used to connect to energy conversion devices being tested at the 1/4 scale ocean energy test site. The platform includes a set of permanently deployed instruments (CTD, DO2, Turb./Fluor., ADCP, HDTV, hydrophone, acoustic array).
SmartBay Glider Spiddal, Galway, Ireland (West Coast) The SmartBay Glider is a Slocum G1 Electric Glider capable of operating to a maximum depth of 1000m. The glider used to efficiently collect oceanographic data. All data is transferred to the MI via Iridium communications.
Coastal Observation System for Northern and Arctic Seas COSYNA_AWIPEV Svalbard North Atlantic – Arctic – Kongsfjord Four underwater pluggable access points for network and power, equipped with an ADCP and a profiling CTD (Sea & Sun; depth, T, conductivity, ChlA fluorescence, O2 and turbidity).
Baltic FA ferrybox system Routes from Kiel to Oslo FA is installed on the ferry MS Color Fantasy. The system has the core sensor with thermosalinograph, inlet temperature sensor, oxygen, Chl-a fluorescence, turbidity and system for water sampling. FA has also the additional fluorescence sensor of PAH, Pycocyanin and cDOM and passive sampling unit for contaminants. FA has spectrophotometric pH and a membrane based solid state detector pCO2 system, and radiometers for marine reflectance of the sea surface.
CGOF Central Gulf of Finland Autonomous Observing System Gulf of Finland
  1. Ferrybox system on Tallinn-Helsinki line;
  2. Keri bottom mounted profiler.
  3. Datacenter Central Gulf of Finland, Estonia. Data from existing measurement devices as well as electricity and communication. Vertical profiling data to investigate dynamics of this stratified basin. Ferrybox data for physical, biogeochemical and biological studies. Assessment of the environmental status of the Gulf of Finland regarding eutrophication.
Baltic Sea
  1. Profiler: Autonomous vertical profiling down to 90 m depth in the Baltic Sea. High-resolution vertical profiles of T, S, Chl a, fluorescence, turbidity, and O2.
  2. Glider Mia: can operate in water depths down to 200 m.
Utö Atmospheric and Marine Research Station Utö Island, Archipelago Sea, Baltic Sea Infrastructure includes the following observations: Meteorology: wind speed and direction, temperature, PAR, diffuse and global radiation, weather camera; atmospheric trace gases; physical, chemical and optical properties of aerosol particles, atmospheric CO2- and CH4-concentrations.

Oceanography: Waves, temperature, currents, salinity, turbidity, chlorophyll, ice cover, pCO2, sea-atmosphere CO2-flux, O2, nutrient profiles at various depths during open sea period only. Lab: Continuous water inflow from the sea.

FMI Baltic Sea Glider Northern Baltic Sea, within 100 km from the Finnish coast. The FMI glider is equipped with CTD, oxygen optode and fluorometer (chlorophyll, turbidity and CDOM). The glider also includes a propeller for improved operability. The maximum operating depth is 200m. Possibility to use also in other parts of the Baltic Sea if a local ship for deployment and recovery is available.
SMHI-FerryBox Svea, Swedish research vessel, monthly monitoring cruises in the Baltic Proper, Kattegat and Skagerrak Svea is the new Swedish research vessel. SMHI will use Svea for monthly monitoring in the Baltic Proper, Kattegat and Skagerrak. The research vessel has several new platforms for ocean monitoring, such as ROTV and MVP. The ferrybox will be equipped with sensor measuring salinity, temperature, oxygen, chlorophyll fluorescence, turbidity, CDOM, phycocyanin fluorescence, phycoerythrin fluorescence, pCO2 and spectrophotometric pH. There will be an IFCB installed next to the ferrybox and automatic samplers that can take water samples at given positions. The system also includes a passive sampler system with six tubes ready for filtration of, for example, zooplankton.

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