Functional traits

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Definition of Functional trait:
Component of an organism’s phenotype that determines its effect on processes and its response to environmental factors[1].
This is the common definition for Functional trait, other definitions can be discussed in the article
Definition of Trait:
Any morphological, physiological or phenological feature measurable at the individual level[1].
This is the common definition for Trait, other definitions can be discussed in the article
Definition of Biological trait:
A defined and measurable (presence/absence, or fuzzy coding) property of organisms, usually at the individual level and used comparatively across species[1].
This is the common definition for Biological trait, other definitions can be discussed in the article


Functional diversity is a biodiversity measure based on functional traits of the species present in a community. Functional traits are those that define species in terms of their ecological roles - how they interact with the environment and with other species (Diaz and Cabido, 2001[2]). In phytoplankton, for example, these traits usually include body size, tolerance and sensitivity to environmental conditions, motility, shape, N-fixation ability and Si requirements (Reynolds et al., 2002[3]; Weithoff G. 2003[4]). In terrestrial plant communities, researchers have included more complex traits like rates of growth, nutrient requirements and water uptake (Walker and Langridge, 2002[5]; Barnett et al, 2007[6]).

Trait- based approaches to community ecology, linking ecological strategies, community assembly theory and functional diversity (Grime, 2006[7]), have the potential to unify the demographic and functional differences among co-occuring species in relation to mechanisms of coexistence (Tilman 1994[8]). Studies have linked characteristics (or else traits) such as feeding mechanisms, longevity, body size and mobility to changes in species distribution in communities exposed too stressors such as sewage pollution (Poore and Kudenov 1978[9], Grizzle 1984[10]), anoxia (Beukema et al. 1999[11]) and fishing (Brown and Wilson 1997[12], Ramsay et al. 1998[13], Spencer et al. 1998[14], Hall-Spencer et al. 1999[15]).


The selection of biological traits for Biological Traits Analysis (BTA) is important. A wide variety of traits are potentially available for describing ecological functioning, but they may not all be equally useful. Trait selection is constrained by the amount of information available (Gayraud et al., 2003[16]) and the costs of processing it. Different traits can describe different aspects of ecological functioning and some are intimately linked to particular functions, whereas others serve only as indirect indicators (Lavorel and Garnier, 2002[17]). The type of trait included in analyses has the potential to affect the way benthic assemblages are viewed, so the number and type of traits chosen for BTA should not be an arbitrary decision. Development of BTA must therefore also include an assessment of which traits provide the most useful description of ecological functioning so that selection is optimised (Bremner et al., 2006[18]).


References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Reiss, J., Bridle, J.R., Montoya, J.M. and Woodward, G. 2009. Emerging horizons in biodiversity and ecosystem functioning research. Trends Ecol. Evol., 24: 505-514
  2. Diaz, S. and Cabido, M. 2001. Vive la difference: plant functional diversity matters to ecosystem processes. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16: 646-655
  3. Reynolds, C.S., Huszar, V., Kruk, C., Naselli-Flores, L. and Melo, S. 2002. Towards a functional classification of the freshwater phytoplankton. Journal of Plankton Research 24: 417–428
  4. Weithoff, G. 2003. The concept of ‘plant functional types’ and ‘functional diversity’ in lake phytoplankton – new understanding of phytoplankton ecology? Freshwater Biology 48: 1669–1675
  5. Walker, B.H. and Langridge, J.L. 2002. Measuring functional diversity in plant communities with mixed lifeforms: a problem of hard and soft attributes. Ecosystems 5: 529–538
  6. Barnett, A.J. and Beisner, B.E. 2007. Zooplankton biodiversity and lake tropic state: explanations invoking resource abundance and distribution. Ecology 88: 1675-1686
  7. Grime, J.P. 2006. Trait convergence and trait divergence in herbaceous plant communities: Mechanisms and consequences. J. Vegetation Science 17: 255-260
  8. Tilman, D. and Downing, J.A. 1994. Biodiversity and stability in grasslands. Nature 367: 363– 365
  9. Poore, G.C.B. and Kudenov, J.D. 1978. Benthos around an outfall of the Werribee sewage-treatment farm, Port Philip Bay, Victoria. Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 29: 157–167
  10. Grizzle, R.E. 1984. Pollution indicator species of macrobenthos in a coastal lagoon. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 18: 191–200
  11. Beukema, J.J., Flach, E.C., Dekker, R., and Starink. M. 1999. A long-term study of the recovery of the macrozoobenthos on large defaunated plots on a tidal flat in the Wadden Sea. J. Sea Res. 42: 235 –254
  12. Brown, B. and Wilson, W.H. 1997. The role of commercial digging of mudflats as an agent for change of infaunal intertidal populations. J Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 218: 49 –61
  13. Ramsay, K., Kaiser, M.J., and Hughes, R.N. 1998. Responses of benthic scavengers to fishing disturbance by towed gears in different habitats. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 224: 73 – 89
  14. Spencer, B.E., Kaiser, M.J., Edwards, D.B. 1998. Intertidal clam harvesting: benthic community change and recovery. Aquaculture Res. 29: 429 – 437
  15. Hall-Spencer, J.M., Froglia, C., Atkinson, R.J.A. and Moore, P.G. 1999. The impact of Rapido trawling for scallops, Pectenjacobaeus (L.), on the benthos of the Gulf of Venice. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 56: 111–124
  16. Gayraud, S., Statzner, B., Bady, P. and Haybach, A. 2003. Invertebrate traits for the biomonitoring of large European rivers: An initial assessment of alternative metrics. Freshwater Biology 48: 2045 – 2064
  17. Lavorel, S. and Garnier, E. 2002. Predicting changes in community composition and ecosystem function from plant traits: revisiting the Holy Grail. Func. Ecol. 16: 545–556
  18. Bremner, J., Rogers, S.I. and Frid, C.L.J. 2006. Matching biological traits to environmental conditions in marine benthic ecosystems. J. Mar. Syst. 60: 302–316
The main author of this article is Vassiliki, Markantonatou
Please note that others may also have edited the contents of this article.

Citation: Vassiliki, Markantonatou (2020): Functional traits. Available from http://www.coastalwiki.org/wiki/Functional_traits [accessed on 23-01-2021]