Wave-overtopping takes place when waves meet a submerged reef or structure, but also when waves meet an emerged reef or structure lower than the approximate wave height. During over-topping, two processes important to the coastal processes take place: wave transmission and the passing of water over the structure.
|Wave-overtopping of breakwater in a flume test.||Wave-overtopping of breakwater in nature.|
For estimates of wave overtopping in coastal engineering, see: Van der Meer, J.W., Allsop, N.W.H., Bruce, T., De Rouck, J., Kortenhaus, A., Pullen, T., Schüttrumpf, H., Troch, P. and Zanuttigh, B. 2018. Manual on wave overtopping of sea defences and related structures, 2nd ed. http://www.overtopping-manual.com/