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Biological_Descriptors: CSV JSON RDF

Distribution Descriptors: CSV JSON RDF

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Biological_Descriptors

wikipagenameLabelDefinitionIs trait ofModification date
"Modification date" is a predefined property that corresponds to the date of the last modification of a subject and is provided by Semantic MediaWiki.
ActinulaActinulaCrawling larval stage of some hydoids (amend)Larva30 June 2015 09:36:37
AdultAdultThe reproductively capable (mature), fully formed, usually longest lived, stage of an animals life cycle.Lifestage1 July 2015 09:49:35
AdultBodyAdult bodyAttached or stuck to adult but not held in specialised appendage / receptacleCementedAttached3 June 2015 11:09:11
AdultBurrowAdult burrowEggs are placed or retained within the parents burrowEggClutchLocation3 June 2015 11:07:44
AdultDiapauseAdultDiapauseStage6 May 2015 10:33:00
AgeAtMaturityAge at maturityAge recorded in days, months, years.Lifehistory3 June 2015 10:58:08
AlternationOfGenerationsAlternation of generationsThe alternation of generations, in the life cycle of an organism, that exhibit different modes of reproduction; typically sexual (diploid) and asexual (haploid) phases. Also termed metagenesis (Lincoln et al., 1998) (e.g. Daphnia, some rotifers)ReproductiveType27 July 2015 13:56:14
AmphiblastulaAmphiblastulaA poriferan larva, composed of a hollow ball of cells, with one hemisphere ciliated (Ruppert & Barnes, 1994).Larva30 June 2015 09:39:28
AnisogamousAnisogamousHaving flagellate gametes of different size, shape or behaviour (from Bold, 1977 and Lincoln et al., 1998).GameteType3 June 2015 09:44:08
AnnualEpisodicAnnual episodicBreeds every year but in one or more discrete periods initiated by some trigger (for example a lunar cycle).Iteroparous3 June 2015 10:43:05
AnnualProtractedAnnual protractedBreeds every year over an extended or drawn out period.Iteroparous3 June 2015 10:43:30
ApomicticParthenogenesisApomictic parthenogenesisReproduction via single cells /eggs that are derived by mitosis (Barnes et al., 1993) - amictic.AsexualReproduction17 July 2015 13:41:07
ArrhenotokyArrhenotokyHaploid males develop from unfertilized eggs and diploid females from fertilized eggs (adapted from Lincoln 'et al., 1998).Gonochoristic3 June 2015 09:02:12
AscidianTadpoleAscidian tadpoleA free-swimming tadpole-like larva of ascidians, characterized by a head (bearing internal organs and adhesive papilla) and tail (with notochord and neural tube) (Stachowitsch, 1992).Larva30 June 2015 09:43:37
AsexualReproductionAsexual reproductionReproduction not involving the exchange of genetic material, amictic, individuals derived form a single parent (Barnes et al., 2006); not involving the fusion of gametes (Lincoln et al., 1998)ReproductiveType2 June 2015 15:21:43
AttachedSedimentSediment surfaceAttached to the sediment surface e.g. by mucilagenous sheath such as used by necklace shells, and opistobranchsCementedAttached3 June 2015 11:10:01
AuriculariaAuriculariaFirst free-swimming larval stage of the Holothuroidea. It is characterized by a continuous and curving flagellated band (Stachowitsch, 1992).Larva23 June 2015 11:29:40
AutomicticParthenogenesisAutomictic parthenogenesisObligate self-fertilization (Lincoln et al., 1998) in which haploid eggs /gametes are produced by meiosis but diploidy is restored without fertilization.Monoecious3 June 2015 09:18:00
Biannual<BiannualBreeds less frequently than every two years.Iteroparous6 May 2015 08:12:42
BiannualEpisodicBiannual episodicBreeds every second year but in one or more discrete periods initiated by some trigger (for example a lunar cycle).Iteroparous3 June 2015 10:43:56
BiannualProtractedBiannual protractedBreeds once every two years over an extended or drawn out period.Iteroparous3 June 2015 10:44:16
Biological DescriptorsBiological DescriptorsMarine species traits4 May 2015 11:03:36
BipinnariaBipinnariaFirst of the two free-swimming larval forms in the asteroids, characterized by a ciliary band and the presence of arm-like projections (Stachowitsch, 1992; Ruppert & Barnes, 1994).Larva15 December 2015 13:27:03
BivoltineBivoltineTwo generations per year (Barnes et al., 2006).ReproductiveFrequency3 June 2015 10:45:55
BodySizeBody sizeA measurement of the size of the organism. Note - the measurement used to express body size varies within taxonomic groups. For example, some disciplines measure diameter, others carapace length, total body length or wing span. Also body size can vary with gender and life stage.Biological Descriptors13 May 2015 12:02:06
BodylengthBody lengthMaximum recorded linear body length (in millimetres) excluding appendages.BodySize14 July 2015 19:53:04
BrachioloariaBrachiolariaThe second the two free-swimming larval forms in the asteroids, characterized by the appearance of three adhesive arms at the anterior end (Ruppert & Barnes, 1994; Stachowitsch, 1992).Larva15 December 2015 13:27:40
BroadcastBroadcastBoth gametes are expelled (spawned) from the confines of the adult body or tissues, into the external fluid medium (water/air)External6 May 2015 08:41:17
BroodChamberBrood chamberEggs retained by adult, usually in specialised cavity/appendage where the eggs develop to larval or juvenile stageEggClutchLocation3 June 2015 11:37:33
BuddingBuddingA form of asexual multiplication in which a new individual begins life as an outgrowth from the body of the parent. It may then separate to lead an independent existence or remain connected or otherwise associated to form a colonial organism (Barnes et al., 1993).Vegetative3 June 2015 11:10:56
CementedAttachedCemented or attachedThe surface or body part to which eggs are attached by the parentEggClutchLocation3 June 2015 11:08:47
ClutchSizeClutch sizeNumber of eggs laid at one time - in organisms that may lay eggs in one or more batches.Lifehistory3 June 2015 11:02:09
ConariaConariaEarly larval stage in siphonophores, composed of a floating colony with disc-shaped float, and consists of a hollow sphere with aboral thickening (Stachowitsch, 1992).Larva30 June 2015 09:00:53
CopepodidCopepodid (copepodite)Free swimming larval stage, typically with five sub-stages, characterized by excretion through maxillary glands, and progressive increase in number of body segments and posterior appendages (see Stachowitsch, 1992).Larva23 June 2015 11:41:29
CoronateCoronateFree-swimming, lecithotrophic larva of BryozoaLarva30 June 2015 11:35:59
CydippidCydippidFree-swimming spherical larva, composed of a simple gastrovascular system and short comb-rows; resembles typical adult ctenophore (see Stachowitsch, 1992, Ruppert & Barnes, 1994).Larva10 July 2015 11:42:14
CyphonautesCyphonautesFree-swimming bryozoan larva, the body is triangular, compressed and enclosed in a bivalve shell (see Ruppert & Barnes, 1994).Larva15 December 2015 13:29:22
CyprisCyprid (cypris)Final lecithotrophic larval stage, characterized by bivalved carapace, compound eyes, prehensile antennules and thoraic appendages (cirri) (see Stachowitsch, 1992).Larva23 June 2015 11:07:16
DiameterDiameterThe length of a straight line passing from side to side through the centre of a body or figure, especially a circle or sphere. Note: For diameter you can specify the measurement type (minimum, maximum, average), gender (male, female) and life stage.TaxonSpecificBodySize7 June 2016 11:47:57
DiapauseStageDormancy/Diapause StageDescription of dormant stageLifehistory3 June 2015 11:44:46
DiplonticDiplonticA life cycle characterized by a diploid adult stage producing haploid gametes by meiosis, the zygote forming by fusion of a pair of gametes (Lincoln et al., 1998).LifeCycle2 June 2015 14:54:40
DirectDevelopmentDirect developmentDevelopment without a larval stageLarvalJuvenileDevelopment3 June 2015 11:19:31
DispersalPotentialLarval or juvenile dispersal potentialPotential for dispersal provided by one or more larval/juvenile stages, recorded in m, km.Lifehistory3 June 2015 11:53:38
DoliolariaDoliolariaSecond free-swimming larvae (after the auricularia) in the Holothuroidea. It is characterized by a series of flagellated rings around a barrel-shaped body (Ruppert & Barnes, 1994; Stachowitsch, 1992).Larva23 June 2015 11:42:29
EchinopluteusEchinopluteusFree-swimming larva of Echinoidea, distinguished by six pairs of arms, supported by skeletal rods (see Ruppert & Barnes, 1994; Stachowitsch, 1992).Larva23 June 2015 11:47:03
EggClutchLocationEgg, egg mass or clutch locationDescription of where fertilized eggs are placed or heldLifehistory3 June 2015 11:06:21
EggPropaguleSizeEgg or propagule sizeSize (diameter) of macrogamete (egg or ovum) in µm, mm, cm.Lifehistory3 June 2015 11:40:44
EggSacEgg sacfor example the egg sacs of copepods - carried by adultEggClutchLocation3 June 2015 11:12:37
EggsEggsDiapauseStage6 May 2015 10:33:17
EphyraEphyraYoung, free-swimming medusa stage typically developing from attached scyphistoma or occasionally direct from a planula. Umbrella typically composed of eight, bifurcated arms (Stachowitsch, 1992).Larva23 June 2015 12:04:07
ExternalExternalEgg/sperm meet and fertilize externally to parental individuals, tissues or confines of their bodies, but within the fluid mediumFertilization3 June 2015 10:27:27
FecundityFecundityNumber of eggs reported produced per female per reproductive cycle.Lifehistory3 June 2015 11:05:02
FertilizationFertilizationDescription of the location of fertilization, whereby in animals/macroalgae a gametes are fertilized or in plants pollination occurs.Lifehistory3 June 2015 10:29:14
FissionFissionA form of asexual multiplication involving division of the body into two or more parts each or all of which can grow into new individuals (Barnes et al., 1993).Vegetative3 June 2015 11:14:34
ForkLengthFork length (FL)1) Length of a fish measured from the tip of the snout to the posterior end of the middle caudal rays. This measurement is used instead of standard length for fishes on which it is difficult to ascertain the end of the vertebral column, and instead of total length in fish with stiff, forked tail, e.g., tuna. Mostly used in fishery biology and not in systematics. (FishBase)

2) Fork length (FL) refers to the length of a fish measured from the tip of the snout to the end of the middle caudal fin rays and is used in fishes in which it is difficult to tell where the vertebral column ends. (Wikipedia)

3) Fork length (FL) can be specified as:
  • Maximum length: Size (in cm) of the largest male/unsexed or female specimen ever caught. (FishBase)
  • Common length: Size (in cm) at which male/unsexed or female specimen(s) are commonly caught or marketed. (FishBase)
TaxonSpecificBodySizeFish7 June 2016 11:37:23
FreeWaterColumnFree or water columnEggs spawned into water columnEggClutchLocation3 June 2015 11:13:19
GameteTypeGamete typeDescriptors of the relative size of gametesLifehistory3 June 2015 09:42:52
GenerationTimeGeneration timeThe mean period of time between reproduction by parent generation and the reproduction of the first filial generation (Lincoln et al., 1998); recorded in years.Lifehistory3 June 2015 11:44:11
GlochidiumGlochidiumSpecialist larval form in some freshwater bivalves, characterized by a bivalve shell, with or with a pair of hooks, and a long adhesive thread or tentacle. It lives as a temporary parasite on the gills or fins of fish. In some species a modified glochidium is termed a 'lasidium' before attachment and a 'haustorium' after attachment (Stachowitsch, 1992).Larva1 July 2015 09:19:49
GoettesLarvaGoette's larvaFree-swimming four armed (lobed) ciliated larva of Platyhelminthes (see Ruppert & Barnes, 1994).Larva15 December 2015 13:31:12
GonochoristicGonochorisitc (dioecious)Having separate sexes/genders (Barnes et al., 1993).SexualReproduction3 June 2015 08:57:34
HaploidDiploidHaploid-diploid (haplodiplontic)Both haploid and diploid forms, with gametophytes giving rise to haploid gametes, and sporophytes giving rise to haploid spores by meiosisLifeCycle2 June 2015 15:00:13
HaplonticHaplonticA life cycle in which meiosis occurs in the zygote to produce the haploid phase but in which only the zygote is diploid (Lincoln et al., 1998).LifeCycle2 June 2015 14:56:54
HardSubstrataRock (hard substrata)Attached or stuck to hard substrata, e.g. dog whelk capsulesCementedAttached3 June 2015 11:10:37
InstarInstarAny intermoult stage in the development of an arthropod (Lincoln et al., 1998)Lifestage30 June 2015 10:42:41
InternalInternalFertilization (gametes meet) within the body (or body cavity or accessory organ) of the individualFertilization6 May 2015 08:40:35
IsogamousIsogamousGametes similar in size, shape and behaviour, not differentiated into male or female (Lincoln et al., 1998)GameteType3 June 2015 09:45:13
IteroparousIteroparous (polytely)1) Breeding several times per lifetime. 2) Organisms that have repeated reproductive cycles (Lincoln et al., 1998).ReproductiveFrequency3 June 2015 10:42:39
JuvenileJuvenileEarly adult life stage of an organism that shares the morphology and ecology of the adult but is not capable of reproduction.Lifestage1 July 2015 13:20:13
JuvenilesJuvenilesDiapauseStage6 May 2015 10:33:28
LarvaLarvaAn independent, motile, developmental stage of an organism, that differs in morphology and ecology from the juvenile or adult stage, and undergoes a metamorphosis to become the juvenile or adult (adapted from Ruppert & Barnes, 1994; Barnes et al., 2006).Lifestage1 July 2015 09:54:12
LarvalJuvenileDevelopmentLarval and juvenile developmentDescription of how the larvae or juveniles develop into adultsLifehistory3 June 2015 11:19:04
LarvalSettlementLarval settlement periodDescription of the period of time over which larval settlement occurs.Lifehistory3 June 2015 11:56:55
LarvalStageDurationDuration of larval stageDuration of the larval stage recorded in days or months.Lifehistory3 June 2015 12:00:11
LarvalSttlementSubstratumLarval settlement substratumA description of the preferred substratum for larval settlementLifehistory3 June 2015 12:01:20
LecithotrophicLecithotrophicDevelopment at the expense of internal resources (i.e. yolk) provided by the female (Barnes et al., 1993).LarvalJuvenileDevelopment3 June 2015 11:33:33
LifeCycleLife cycleThe stages an organism passes through between the production of gametes by one generation and production of gametes by the next generation (Lincoln et al., 1998)Lifehistory2 June 2015 14:52:34
LifeSpanLife spanlife span/longevity, recorded in days, months, years.Lifehistory3 June 2015 10:58:44
LifehistoryLife historyTraits that describe the life history characteristics of an organismBiological Descriptors2 June 2015 15:31:31
LifestageLife stagesDescription of the larval and juvenile stages in the life cycle of an organismBiological Descriptors30 June 2015 10:59:16
MegalopaMegalopaPost larval stage of decapod Crustacea (Stachowitsch, 1992).Larva8 July 2015 08:29:28
MetanaupliusMetanaupliusSecond larval stage in decapod Crustacea; resembles the nauplius but with more appendages (see Stachowitsch, 1992).Larva29 June 2015 16:14:40
MitrariaMitrariaA type of polychaete larva characterized by numerous long flotation bristles (Stachowitsch, 1992).Larva30 June 2015 10:54:28
MonoeciousHermaphrodite (monoecious)Both male and female reproductive organs in a single individual (animals) or flower (plants) (Lincoln et al., 1998).SexualReproduction3 June 2015 09:14:29
MullersLarvaMuller's larvaThe free-swimming eight armed (lobed) ciliated larva of Platyhelminthes (see Rupert & Barnes, 1994).Larva15 December 2015 13:31:55
MultivoltineMultivoltineMany generations per year (Barnes et al., 2006).ReproductiveFrequency3 June 2015 10:45:32
NaupliusNaupliusFree-swimming larva, with a characteristic triangular shape, rostral horns in some, three pairs of appendages, and sometimes a nauplia eye. The number of nauplius stages varies between groups (see Stachowitsch, 1992).Larva23 June 2015 16:22:31
NectochaetaNectochaetaA polychaete larval stage where the first set of chaetal bundles and parapodia develop, although the ciliary girdle remains for swimming (see Stachowitsch, 1992).Larva30 June 2015 09:52:09
NoDiapauseNoneDiapauseStage6 May 2015 10:33:41
NoOviparousCareNo careEggs are laid and abandoned by adultOviparous3 June 2015 11:20:54
NoViviparousCareNo careOffspring are abandoned by the adultViviparous3 June 2015 11:30:41
NonSelfingNon-selfingIncapable of self-fertilization, due to physical or temporal separation of gametes, and/or self-incompatability genesPermanentHermaphrodite3 June 2015 09:20:42
OogamousOogamousHaving large, non-motile eggs and small motile sperm (Lincoln et al., 1998).GameteType3 June 2015 09:45:55
OphiopluteusOphiopluteusFree-swimming larvae of Ophiuroidea, distinguished by four pairs of arms supported by skeletal rods (Stachowitsch, 1992).Larva30 June 2015 09:53:57
OviparousOviparousEgg laying; producing eggs that are laid and hatch externally (Lincoln et al., 1998).DirectDevelopment3 June 2015 11:20:11
OviparousCareParental CareParents, guard or protect the eggs/clutch e.g. birds, some reptilesOviparous3 June 2015 11:21:28
OvoviviparousOvoviviparousFully formed eggs are retained and hatched inside the maternal body and are released as live offspring (Lincoln et al., 1998). No nutrition is derived from the mother.DirectDevelopment3 June 2015 11:27:34
ParenchymellaParenchymellaA poriferan larva composed of a ciliated ball of cells (blastula), with a brief swimming phase (Ruppert & Barnes, 1994).Larva18 December 2015 11:24:03
PediveligerPediveligerA late veliger that is able to use its foot to crawl and provide temporary attachmentLarva30 June 2015 11:29:55
PelagosphaeraPelagosphaeraThe secondary free-swimming larva in Sipunculida, that develops from a non-feeding trochophore (Ruppert & Barnes, 1994).Larva18 December 2015 11:21:23
PermanentHermaphroditePermanent (synchronous) hermaphroditeCapable of producing both ova and spermatozoa either at the same time (Barnes et al., 1993).Monoecious3 June 2015 09:19:34
PhysiologyPhysiologyBiological Descriptors1 April 2015 09:25:05
PilidiumPilidiumFree-swimming, helmet-shaped, larva of nemerteans (ribbon worms) with an apical tuft, apical sensory organs, oral lobes and oral ciliated band (see Stachowitsch, 1992, Rupert & Barnes, 1996).Larva30 June 2015 08:45:56
PlanktotrophicPlanktotrophicFeeding at least in part on materials captured from the plankton (Barnes et al., 1993).LarvalJuvenileDevelopment3 June 2015 11:32:54
PlanulaPlanulaA ciliated, free swimming larva; lacks a mouth but in older stages may include a gastrovascular cavity (Stachowitsch, 1992)Larva12 June 2015 16:28:44
PollinationPollination (plants)Transfer of male gametophyte (pollen) to the 'female' part of a flowerInternal3 June 2015 10:30:26
ProtandrousProtandrousA condition of hermaphroditism in plants and animals where male gametes mature and are shed before female gametes mature (Holmes, 1979).SequentialHermaphrodite3 June 2015 09:36:18
ProtogynousProtogynousA condition of hermaphroditism in plants and animals where female gametes mature and are shed before male gametes mature (Holmes 1979).SequentialHermaphrodite3 June 2015 09:36:52
ProtonymphonProtonymphonLarval pycnogonid that bears three pairs of appendages, the chelicerae, palps and ovigerous legs (Ruppert & Barnes, 1996).Larva30 June 2015 08:47:31
ProtozoeaProtozoeaThird larval stage in Decapoda, characterized by antennal locomotion (see Stachowitsch, 1992)Larva30 June 2015 09:56:13
PseudoArrhenotokyPseudo-arrhenotokyMales develop from diploid fertilized eggs but subsequently eliminate or silence the paternal genomeGonochoristic3 June 2015 09:04:17
RatariaRatariaA later larval stage in siphonophores, composed of a floating colony with a disc-shaped float, and an elongated body surrounded by the rim of the growing disc (Stachowitsch, 1992)Larva8 July 2015 08:27:47
ReproductiveFrequencyReproductive FrequencyLifehistory6 May 2015 08:22:37
ReproductiveSeasonReproductive seasonA description of the season(s) or months of the year during which reproduction occursLifehistory3 June 2015 10:54:48
ReproductiveTypeReproductive typeTraits that describe how an organism reproduces or the mechanism by which reproduction is achieved.Lifehistory27 July 2015 13:57:28
SedimentSurfaceSediment surfaceEggClutchLocation14 July 2015 20:00:23
SeedsSeeds (plants)DiapauseStage3 June 2015 11:45:28
SelfFertilizingSelf-fertilizingCapable of self-fertilizationPermanentHermaphrodite3 June 2015 09:21:24
SemelparousSemelparous (monotely)Breeding once per lifetime, or breeding only once then dying (Barnes et al., 2006). Organisms that only have one brood during their lifetime (Lincoln et al., 1998).ReproductiveFrequency3 June 2015 10:47:26
SemivoltineSemivoltineOne generation every two years (Barnes et al., 2006).ReproductiveFrequency3 June 2015 10:48:43
SequentialHermaphroditeSequential hermaphroditeHermaphrodite in which the male and female organs mature (that is produce gametes) at different times in the reproductive cycle (adapted from Lincoln et al., 1998)Monoecious3 June 2015 09:35:14
SexualReproductionSexual reproduction1) Reproduction involving the regular alternation of gamete formation by meiosis, and gamete fusion (karyogamy) to form a zygote (Lincoln et al.,1998). 2) Reproduction where recombination of genetic material, derived from more than one parent is possible (Barnes et al. 2006), true amphimixis involves random segregation of genes and random association of parental contribution (gametes).ReproductiveType3 June 2015 09:06:08
SpecialisedStageSpecialised stageA specialised dormancy or diapause stage in the life cycle of the organismDiapauseStage3 June 2015 11:46:38
SpermcastSpermcastMale gametes are spawned and fertilize eggs within or attached to parentInternal3 June 2015 10:31:31
SporogenesisSporogenesisReproduction via sporesReproductiveType3 June 2015 09:40:23
StandardLengthStandard length (SL)1) The measurement from the most anterior tip of the body to the midlateral posterior edge of the hypural plate (in fish with a hypural plate) or to the posterior end of the vertebral column (in fish lacking hypural plates). It may be restricted to the tip of the snout if the lower jaw projects. The base of the caudal fin (end of the vertebral column or posterior edge of the hypural plate) is determined by flexing the tail up while the caudal peduncle is held down. The resultant wrinkle or caudal flexure indicates the caudal base. It may also be determined by probing or dissection. Sometimes the posteriormost point is the last scale, the last pored scale or the beginning of the caudal fin rays. It is the usual scientific measurement for length of a fish except in Myxini, Petromyzontiformes, Elasmobranchii and Holocephali. This measurement is used because long-preserved fish often lose the tips of the caudal fin rays through breakage after the desiccation effect of alcohol. See total length and fork length. In Holocephali the length is usually taken from the tip of the snout to the origin of the upper caudal fin because the caudal filament breaks off frequently. In Scaridae it is taken back to the rear margin of the second to last lateral line scale, because the large scales obscure the point of caudal flexure. In small dead fish, the end point is detected by bending the caudal fin to one side. In fishery work, as a result of the use of the measuring board, standard-, fork- and total length are taken from the most anterior part of the head. Abbreviated as SL. (FishBase)

2) Standard length (SL) refers to the length of a fish measured from the tip of the snout to the posterior end of the last vertebra or to the posterior end of the midlateral portion of the hypural plate. Simply put, this measurement excludes the length of the caudal fin. (Wikipedia)

Standard length measurements are used with Teleostei (most bony fish), while total length measurements are used with Myxini (hagfish), Petromyzontiformes (lampreys), and (usually) Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays), as well as some other fishes. (Wikipedia)

3) Standard length (SL) can be specified as: a) Maximum length: Size (in cm) of the largest male/unsexed or female specimen ever caught. (FishBase); b) Common length: Size (in cm) at which male/unsexed or female specimen(s) are commonly caught or marketed. (FishBase).
TaxonSpecificBodySizeFish19 December 2016 14:22:17
TaxonSpecificBodySizeTaxon specific body sizeThe measure of body size specific to a taxonomic group.BodySize7 June 2016 11:25:51
TaxonSpecificBodySizeFishTaxon specific body size: FishFish measurement is the measuring of the length of individual fish and of various parts of their anatomy. These data are used in many areas of ichthyology, including taxonomy and fisheries biology. (Wikipedia)TaxonSpecificBodySize7 June 2016 11:30:00
TotalLengthTotal length (TL)1) The greatest length of the whole body between the most anterior point of the body and the most posterior point, in a straight line, not over the curve of the body. Sometimes, when there are two equal lobes, the caudal rays are squeezed together and their tip is taken as the most posterior point (excluding the caudal filaments), or the longest lobe is squeezed to the midline (maximum length or extreme tip length). Also an imaginary line may be drawn between the two lobe tips and length to its mid-point taken as the most posterior point (total auxiliary length or bilobular length). Usually the tip of the most posterior lobe of the fin in normal position is taken as the posteriormost point (total normal length or natural tip length). Total length is used by taxonomists in Myxini, Petromyzontiformes, usually in Elasmobranchii and sometimes in other fishes. Standard length is usually employed with Teleostei. Abbreviated TL. (FishBase)


2) Total length (TL) refers to the length of a fish measured from the tip of the snout to the tip of the longer lobe of the caudal fin, usually measured with the lobes compressed along the midline. It is a straight-line measure, not measured over the curve of the body. (Wikipedia)

Total length measurements are used in slot limit and minimum landing size regulations. (Wikipedia)

3) Total length (TL) can be specified as:
  • Maximum length: Size (in cm) of the largest male/unsexed or female specimen ever caught. (FishBase)
  • Common length: Size (in cm) at which male/unsexed or female specimen(s) are commonly caught or marketed. (FishBase)
TaxonSpecificBodySizeFish7 June 2016 11:35:59
UnivoltineUnivoltineOne generation per year / annuals (Barnes et al., 2006).ReproductiveFrequency3 June 2015 10:48:11
VegetationVegetationAttached or stuck to vegetation, e.g. opistobranchs, mermaid purses, cephalopod eggs etc.CementedAttached3 June 2015 11:11:16
VegetativeVegetative reproductionAsexual reproduction via somatic growth processes, fragmentation, fission, or budding (adapted from Lincoln et al., 1998)AsexualReproduction3 June 2015 11:21:13
VeligerVeligerA free-swimming molluscan larva, characterized by lobed extensions of the peroral trochus (velum), larval shell and rudimentary foot (Stachowitsch, 1992).Larva30 June 2015 11:26:16
ViviparousViviparous1) Producing live offspring from within the body of the parent (Lincoln et al., 1998). 2) Development of an embryo within the body of the parent, in part, resources passing directly from parent to embryo (Barnes et al., 2006).DirectDevelopment3 June 2015 11:30:00
ViviparousCareParental careOffspring are nurtured and protected by the adultViviparous3 June 2015 11:31:29
WidthWidthA measurement or extent of something from side to side; the lesser of two or the least of three dimensions of a body (OED) Note: For width you can specify the measurement type (minimum, maximum, average), gender (male, female) and life stage.TaxonSpecificBodySize7 June 2016 11:47:52
WidthOfDiscWidth of disc (WD)The greatest distance between the lateral tips of the pectoral fins in Rajiformes. (FishBase)TaxonSpecificBodySizeFish7 June 2016 11:41:06
WingspanWingspanIn birds (Aves) - "the distance between the wing tips when the wings are held outstretched" (Wikipedia) or "wingtip to wingtip in flight" (BTO).

In winged insects (Insecta) - "may refer to the distance between the centre of the thorax to the apex of the wing doubled or to the width between the apices with the wings set with the trailing wing edge perpendicular to the body" (Wikipedia)

Note: For wingspan you can specify the measurement type (minimum, maximum, average), gender (male, female) and life stage.
TaxonSpecificBodySize7 June 2016 11:47:48
ZoeaZoeaFourth free-swimming larval stage of Decapoda, with thoracic appendages for locomotion (see Stachowitsch, 1992).Larva7 December 2015 15:25:53

Distribution_Descriptors

Distribution Descriptors 
wikipagenameLabelDefinitionIs trait ofModification date
"Modification date" is a predefined property that corresponds to the date of the last modification of a subject and is provided by Semantic MediaWiki.
AbyssobenthicAbyssobenthic (Abyssal)Occupying the ocean floor from ca 4000 - 6000 m depth. Usually a more or less flat plain (Lincoln et al., 1998).Benthic28 May 2015 14:13:11
AbyssopelagicAbyssopelagic (2500-6000 m)Overlays the plains of the major ocean basins with a lower boundary of ca 6000 m.Pelagic29 May 2015 15:24:39
AlphaHalineAlpha-haline36-40 psuMarineSalinity1 June 2015 11:16:34
AlphaMesohalineAlpha-Mesohaline10-<18 psuMesohaline1 June 2015 11:06:44
AlphaOligohalineAlpha-Oligohaline3-<5 psuOligohaline1 June 2015 11:10:09
AlphaPolyhalineAlpha-Polyhaline25-<30 psuPolyhaline1 June 2015 11:13:00
AnchialineCavesAnchialine cavesCoastal salt water habitats with no surface connection to the sea.VerticalBiologicalZone8 July 2015 09:13:39
ArtificialArtificial (man-made)E.g. wood, metal or concrete structures.HardImmobile6 May 2015 14:27:41
BathybenthicBathybenthic (Bathyal)Occupying the ocean floor from ca 200 - 4000 m depth (Lincoln et al., 1998).Benthic28 May 2015 14:13:46
BathylpelagicBathylpelagic (1000-2500 m)Extends from ca 1000-2500 m.Pelagic29 May 2015 15:28:15
BedrockBedrockAny stable hard substratum, not separated into boulders or smaller sediment units. Includes soft rock-types such as chalk, peat and clay. (Hiscock et al., 1999; MarLIN)HardImmobile1 June 2015 14:23:02
BenthicBenthicPertaining to the sea bed, river bed or lake floor (Lincoln et al., 1998).VerticalBiologicalZone8 July 2015 09:13:52
BenthopelagicBenthopelagicA zone of open water extending ca 100 m above the surface of the sea bed at all depths below the edge of the continental shelf.Pelagic6 May 2015 14:29:07
BetaHalineBeta-Haline30-36 psuMarineSalinity1 June 2015 11:17:21
BetaMesohalineBeta-Mesohaline5-<10 psuMesohaline1 June 2015 11:08:05
BetaOligohalineBeta-Oligohaline0.5-<3 psuOligohaline1 June 2015 11:10:41
BetaPolyhalineBeta-Polyhaline18-<25 psuPolyhaline1 June 2015 11:13:49
BiogenicReefBiogenic reefAn elevated structure on the seabed built by calcareous or other concretion-forming organisms, or by chemical precipitation (Hiscock, 1996); for example by Modiolus modiolus or Sabellaria alveolataFeaturesOther2 June 2015 13:08:16
BrackishBrackishEnvironment6 May 2015 14:31:02
BrackishSalinityBrackish0.5-<30 psuSalinity1 June 2015 11:08:38
BurrowDwellerBurrow dwellerOccupies or shares space in burrow constructed by other organisms.FeaturesOther2 June 2015 13:11:34
CaveCaveA hollow normally eroded in a cliff (or vertical rock) with the penetration being greater than the width of the entrance (Hiscock, 1996).FeaturesOther17 July 2015 13:46:45
CircalittoralCircalittoralThe subzone of the rocky sublittoral below that dominated by algae (the infralittoral), and dominated by animals. No lower limit is defined, but species composition changes below about 40m to 80m depth, depending on depth of the seasonal thermocline. This subzone can be subdivided into the upper circalittoral where foliose algae are present and the lower circalittoral where they are not (see Hiscock, 1985). The term is also used by Glémarec (1973) to refer to two étages of the sediment benthos below the infralittoral: a "coastal circalittoral category with a eurythermal environment of weak seasonal amplitude (less than 10°C) varying slowly" and a "circalittoral category of the open sea with a stenothermal environment" (Hiscock, 1996).Sublittoral6 May 2015 14:31:55
CircalittoralOffshoreCircalittoral offshoreTypically occurs below 50-70 metres away from the influence of wave action. Aphotic with animal communities in stable or stenothermal and stenohaline conditions. Open sea (Connor et al., 1997).Sublittoral28 May 2015 15:28:34
ClayClay1) Sediment particles less than 0.004 mm in size (Wentworth, 1922). 2) A soft very fine-grained sedimentary rock composed primarily of clay-sized particles (Hiscock, 1996).SedimentSoft1 June 2015 14:53:05
CoarseCleanSandCoarse clean sand1) Particle size 0.5 - 4 mm (Hiscock, 1996)Sand2 June 2015 10:59:36
CoarseSedimentsCoarse sedimentsSediments composed of gravel and sand; inc. gravel, gravelly sand and sandy gravel (Long, 2006)SedimentSoft1 June 2015 15:53:20
CobblesCobbles64-256 mm. May be rounded or flat. Substrata that are predominantly cobbles.HardMobile1 June 2015 16:39:14
CrevicesFissuresCrevices and fissuresA narrow crack in hard substratum where penetration is deeper than the width at the entrance; a crevice is <10 mm wide at the entrance, while a fissure is >10 mm (Hiscock ,1996)FeaturesOther2 June 2015 13:42:48
DemersalDemersalLiving at or near the bottom of a sea or lake but having the capacity for active swimming (from Lincoln et al., 1998).EnvironmentalPosition30 June 2015 14:38:43
DepthDepthMaximum recorded depth below chart datum (expressed in metres).Distribution Descriptors28 May 2015 14:09:35
DepthRangeDepth rangeMaximum to minimum recorded depth (expressed as metres below chart datum).Depth30 June 2015 13:53:45
DepthSubstratumDepth in substratumThe depth within the substratum at which the organism is found (max recorded in metres).Depth30 June 2015 13:56:29
Distribution DescriptorsDistribution DescriptorsFields and traits that describe the distribution of the species.Marine species traits27 July 2015 14:06:39
ElevationElevationA measure of height above chart datum, recorded in metresDistribution Descriptors30 June 2015 14:00:33
EnclosedCoastEnclosed coast or embaymentA marine inlet or harbour fully enclosed from the open sea except at the entrance, not normally open to the sea at two ends. The connection with the open sea is normally less restricted than is the case with lagoons (Hiscock, 1996).Physiography29 May 2015 16:30:06
EndophyticEndophyticA plant living within another plant (Lincoln et al., 1998)EnvironmentalPosition30 June 2015 14:31:46
EndozoicEndozoicLiving within the body of an animal (Lincoln et al., 1998).EnvironmentalPosition30 June 2015 14:32:09
EnvironmentEnvironmentBroad descriptors of the major environmental regionsDistribution Descriptors28 May 2015 16:00:42
EnvironmentalPositionEnvironmental positionPosition relative to substratum or fluid medium (air/water).Habitat30 June 2015 14:14:51
EpibenthicEpibenthicLiving on the surface of the seabed.EnvironmentalPosition30 June 2015 14:27:21
EpifaunalEpifaunalAn animal living on the surface of the substratum.EnvironmentalPosition30 June 2015 14:28:39
EpifloralEpifloralA plant living on the surface of the substratum.EnvironmentalPosition30 June 2015 14:29:06
EpilithicEpilithicLiving on the surface of rock or other hard inorganic substrataEnvironmentalPosition30 June 2015 14:26:32
EpipelagicEpipelagic (0-200 m)The photic zone, includes the open ocean influenced by light.  The lower boundary is dependent on the depth of light penetration and is generally regarded extend to ca 200 m in depth.Pelagic29 May 2015 15:26:09
EpipelicEpipelicAn organism that moves over the surface of sediment or lives at the sediment / water interface.EnvironmentalPosition30 June 2015 14:29:54
EpiphyticEpiphyticLiving on the surface of a living plant but not parasitic upon it.EnvironmentalPosition30 June 2015 14:30:18
EpizooicEpizooicLiving on the exterior of a living animal but not parasitic upon it.EnvironmentalPosition30 June 2015 14:30:57
EstuaryEstuaryDownstream part of a river where it widens to enter the sea; often with significant freshwater influence and predominantly comprising sediment habitats.Physiography6 May 2015 14:40:39
EulittoralLittoral1) The region between the highest and lowest extent of the tide on the shore. 2) The shore zone between the lowest and highest seasonal water level in a lake (Lincoln et al., 1998)Benthic15 July 2015 15:41:24
ExposedExposed1) Coasts which face the prevailing wind but which have a degree of shelter because of extensive shallow areas offshore, offshore obstructions, or a restricted (less than 90°) window to open water. These sites are not generally exposed to large waves or regular swell. 2) Open coasts facing away from prevailing winds but with a long fetch, and where strong winds are frequent.WaveExposed6 May 2015 14:40:58
ExtremelyExposedExtremely exposedOpen coastlines which face into the prevailing wind and receive both wind-driven waves and oceanic swell without any offshore obstructions such as islands or shallows for several thousand kilometres and where deep water is close to the shore (50 m depth contour within about 300 m).WaveExposed1 June 2015 11:40:14
ExtremelyShelteredExtremely shelteredFully enclosed coasts with a fetch of no more than about 3 km.WaveSheltered1 June 2015 11:44:54
FeaturesOtherFeatures or other substratumDescriptors of types of unusual or unique types of substratum or habitatSubstratumHabitat2 June 2015 13:12:53
FineCleanSandFine clean sandParticle size 0.063 - 0.5 mm (Hiscock, 1996)Sand2 June 2015 11:01:57
FreshwaterFreshwaterEnvironment6 May 2015 14:41:42
FreshwaterSalinityFreshwater<0.5 psuSalinity1 June 2015 11:14:32
GravelShingleGravel or shingle1) Particle size 4 -16 mm. 2) Clean stone or shell gravel including dead maerl (Hiscock, 1996) 3) >80% gravel (Long, 2006).CoarseSediments2 June 2015 10:39:01
GravellyMudGravelly mudMud with 5-30% gravel (see Long, 2006)Mixed2 June 2015 11:48:57
GravellyMuddySandGravelly muddy sandSand (50-90%) with gravel (>5%) and mud (see Long, 2006)Mixed2 June 2015 12:09:07
GravellySandGravelly sandSand with 5-30% gravel (see Long 2006)CoarseSediments2 June 2015 09:51:03
HabitatHabitatTraits that describe an organisms preferred habitat and its position within that habitat.Distribution Descriptors6 May 2015 15:08:12
HabitatPreferencesHabitat PreferencesDistribution Descriptors6 May 2015 15:08:20
HadobenthicHadobenthic (Hadal)Occupying the ocean floor at depths exceeding ca 6000 m. Usually in trenches and canyons of the abyssal zone. (Lincoln et al., 1998).Benthic28 May 2015 15:21:58
HadopelagicHadopelagic (>6000 m)Open waters of deep oceanic trenches, from ca 6000 m and below.Pelagic29 May 2015 15:26:39
HardHardHard substratum e.g. bedrock, concrete, boulders,cobbles and pebblesSubstratumHabitat25 June 2015 14:26:18
HardImmobileImmobile hardImmobile hard substratum e.g. solid rock, concrete but including soft rocks, such as chalk.Hard25 June 2015 14:27:13
HardMobileMobile hardMobile hard substratum, e.g. cobbles, pebbles that are regularly moved by wave action.Hard25 June 2015 14:27:50
HeteromorphicHeteromorphicThe haploid and diploid phases are different in size and body shape; the gametophyte is often diminutive (small to microscopic).HaploidDiploid2 June 2015 15:01:49
HyperSalineHyper-saline>40 psuSalinity1 June 2015 11:15:15
HyperbenthicHyperbenthicLiving above but close to the substratum (Lincoln et al., 1998).EnvironmentalPosition30 June 2015 14:39:22
IceAssociatedIce-AssociatedSea ice, icebergs and other ice-associated marine habitats.VerticalBiologicalZone8 July 2015 09:14:04
InfaunalInfaunalBenthic animals which live within the seabed.EnvironmentalPosition30 June 2015 14:32:52
InfralittoralInfralittoralA subzone of the sublittoral in which upward-facing rocks are dominated by erect algae, typically kelps; it can be further subdivided into the upper and lower infralittoral (based on Hiscock, 1985). The term is also used by Glémarec (1973) to refer to areas (étages) with a eurythermal environment of great seasonal and also daily and tidal amplitude. 1) lower The part of the infralittoral subzone which, on hard substrata, supports scattered kelp plants (a kelp park) or from which kelps are absent altogether and the seabed is dominated by foliose red and brown algae. It may be difficult to distinguish the lower infralittoralwhere grazing pressure prevents the establishment of foliose algae. 2) upper The part of the infralittoral subzone which, on hardsubstrata, is dominated by Laminariales forming a dense canopy, or kelp forest (based on Hiscock, 1985).Sublittoral6 May 2015 14:46:11
InterstitialInterstitialLiving within the system of cavities and channels formed by the spaces between grains in a sediment (interstitial space).EnvironmentalPosition30 June 2015 14:36:19
IsomorphicIsomorphicHaploid and diploid phases morphologically identicalHaploidDiploid2 June 2015 15:02:56
LagoonIsolated saline water (lagoon)Enclosed bodies of water, separated or partially separated from the sea by shingle, sand or sometimes rock and with a restricted exchange of water with the sea, yielding varying salinity regimes.Physiography29 May 2015 16:36:16
LargeBouldersLarge or very large boulders>512 mm; likely to be stable (Hiscock, 1996).HardImmobile1 June 2015 14:24:49
LithotomousLithotomousStone-boring; an organism that burrows into rock.EnvironmentalPosition30 June 2015 14:33:50
LowerCircalittoralLower circalittoralDominated by animals with no foliose algae but encrusting Rhodophycota patchy in grazed areas. The part of the circalittoral subzone on hard substrata below the maximum depth limit of foliose algae (based on Hiscock, 1985).Circalittoral28 May 2015 15:26:38
LowerInfralittoralLower infralittoralThe part of the infralittoral subzone which, on hard substrata, supports scattered kelp plants (a kelp park) or from which kelps are absent altogether and the seabed is dominated by foliose red and brown algae. It may be difficult to distinguish the lower infralittoral where grazing pressure prevents the establishment of foliose algae (based on Hiscock, 1985).Infralittoral28 May 2015 15:23:32
LowerLittoralLower littoralThe lower part of the shore only exposed (emersed) at the lowest part of the tide.Eulittoral15 July 2015 15:41:41
LowerLittoralFringeLower littoral fringeThe bottom of the littoral fringe. In the UK, characterized by he Pelvetia/Porphyra belt with patchy Verrucaria maura and Fucus spiralis (on sheltered shores). Verrucaria mucosa present above the main barnacle population. May also include salt marsh species on shale/pebbles in shelter (Hiscock, 1996).Eulittoral28 May 2015 15:14:31
MacroalgaeMacroalgaeMacroalgal surfaces, such as kelps and fucoids.FeaturesOther2 June 2015 13:43:26
MaerlMaerlMaerl beds formed by build up of maerl.FeaturesOther6 May 2015 14:48:58
MarineMarineEnvironment6 May 2015 14:49:04
MarineSalinityMarine30-40 psu (equals MNCR Full)Salinity1 June 2015 11:16:09
MediumCleanSandMedium clean sandParticle size 0.25-1mm (Hiscock, 1996)Sand2 June 2015 11:00:41
MesohalineMesohaline5-<18 psu (equals MNCR Low, <18 psu)BrackishSalinity1 June 2015 11:07:37
MesopelagicMesopelagic (200-1000 m)The upper aphotic zone and extends to a depth of ca 1000 m.Pelagic29 May 2015 15:27:34
MidEulittoralMid littoralBarnacle - limpet dominated, sometimes mussels, with Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum. Mastocarpus stellatus and Palmaria palmata patchy in lower part. Usually quite a wide belt (Hiscock, 1996).Eulittoral15 July 2015 15:42:03
MixedMixedMixtures of a variety of sediment types, composed of pebble / gravel / sand / mud. This category includes muddy gravels, muddy sandy gravels, gravelly muds, and muddy gravelly sands.SedimentSoft2 June 2015 12:04:15
ModeratelyExposedModerately exposedGenerally coasts facing away from prevailing winds and without a long fetch but where strong winds can be frequent.WaveExposed1 June 2015 11:41:17
ModeratelyStrongModerately strong1 to 3 knots (0.5-1.5 m/sec.)TidalStrength1 June 2015 13:29:30
MudMud1) Particle size <0.063 mm (silt / clay fraction) (Hiscock, 1996) 2) >90% mud (Long, 2006)MudSandyMud5 June 2015 16:11:24
MudSandyMudMud and sandy mudMud and sandy muds where mud is the major fraction (see Long, 2006)SedimentSoft2 June 2015 13:54:40
MuddyGravelMuddy gravelGravel (30-80%) with mud (see Long, 2006)Mixed2 June 2015 11:53:09
MuddySandMuddy sandSand (50-90%) with mud (see Long, 2006)MudSandyMud2 June 2015 13:53:27
MuddySandyGravelMuddy sandy gravelGravel (30-80%) with mud and sand (see Long, 2006)Mixed2 June 2015 11:54:35
NektonNektonic (nekton)Active swimming organisms that live in the water column and are able to move independently of the water mass (adapted from Lincoln et al., 1998).EnvironmentalPosition30 June 2015 14:55:33
NeriticNeriticWater column overlying the continental shelf; surface to ca 200m depth.Province6 May 2015 14:52:11
NeustonicNeustonicLiving on or under the surface film of open water.EnvironmentalPosition30 June 2015 14:37:17
OceanicOceanicOpen waters beyond the continental shelf.Province6 May 2015 14:52:26
OffshoreSeabedOffshore seabedSeabed beyond three miles (5 km) from the shore.Physiography29 May 2015 16:36:51
OligohalineOligohaline0.5-<5 psu (included under MNCR Low, <18 psu)BrackishSalinity1 June 2015 11:09:29
OpenCoastOpen coastAny part of the coast not within a marine inlet, strait or lagoon, including offshore rocks and small islands. This includes MNCR types; linear coast, islands / rocks and semi-enclosed coast.Physiography29 May 2015 16:39:18
OtherSpeciesOther speciesThe surface of other species, e.g. shells or carapace.FeaturesOther2 June 2015 13:44:34
OverhangsOverhangAn overhanging part of a rock formation. Typically the surface of the rock below the overhang receives some cover or shade from the overhang.FeaturesOther2 June 2015 13:47:50
PebblesPebbles16-64 mm. May be rounded or flat. Substrata which are predominantly pebbles.HardMobile2 June 2015 09:01:59
PelagicPelagicPertaining to the water column. Inhabiting the open sea, excluding the sea floor (rephrased from Lincoln et al., 1998).VerticalBiologicalZone8 July 2015 09:01:39
PhysiographyPhysiographyCoastal geomorphology and physical features.Habitat1 June 2015 12:07:34
PlanktonPlanktonic (plankton)Living in the fluid medium (water or air) but unable to maintain their position or distribution independently of the movement of the water/air mass (adapted from Lincoln et al., 1998).EnvironmentalPosition30 June 2015 14:48:12
PleustonicPleustonicLiving permanently at the water surface due to their own buoyancy, normally positioned partly in the water and partly in the air.EnvironmentalPosition30 June 2015 14:37:51
PolyhalinePolyhaline18-<30 psu (included under MNCR Reduced, 18-30 psu)BrackishSalinity1 June 2015 11:12:25
ProvinceProvinceDescriptors of the major 'regions' of the seas.Distribution Descriptors28 May 2015 15:40:10
RiaVoeRia or voeDrowned river valleys of south-west Britain (ria) and Shetland (voe). Often with a greater presence of rock and more marine in character than estuaries.Physiography29 May 2015 16:37:30
RockpoolsRockpool1) A pool of water among rocks left behind by the ebbing tide. 2) a depression in the littoral zone of a rocky seashore where, at low tide, seawater is left behind (Hiscock, 1996).FeaturesOther2 June 2015 13:53:46
SalinitySalinity (regime)The range of salinities in which the organism is recorded (scale taken from Reusser & Lee, 2011)Habitat1 June 2015 12:09:24
SaltmarshSalt marshA flat, poorly drained coastal swamp inundated by most high tides (Lincoln et al., 1998).FeaturesOther2 June 2015 13:57:44
SandSand1) Particle size 0.063 -4 mm (Hiscock 1996) 2) >90% sand (Long, 2006)SandMuddySand2 June 2015 10:58:06
SandMuddySandSand and muddy sandSands and sands with mud where sand is the major fraction (see Long 2006)SedimentSoft2 June 2015 10:55:14
SandyGravelSandy gravel30 -80% gravel with sand (see Long, 2006).CoarseSediments2 June 2015 10:47:56
SandyMudSandy mudMud (50-90%) with sandMudSandyMud2 June 2015 13:53:43
SeaIceSea iceThe habitat provided by the surface of frozen sea water floating on the surface. Sea ice may form thin sheets, fast moving pieces, pack ice or large icebergs.IceAssociated28 May 2015 15:47:22
SeaLochSea loch (Scotland), sea lough (Ireland)Glacially formed inlets (fjords, fjards) of western Scotland and Ireland; typically elongate and deepened by glacial action with little freshwater influence. Often with narrows and sills dividing the loch into a series of basins.Physiography29 May 2015 16:38:32
SeagrassSeagrassHabitat associated with seagrass bed communities.FeaturesOther6 May 2015 14:57:38
SedimentSoftSoft (sediment)Particulate solid matter accumulated by natural processes (Hiscock, 1996)SubstratumHabitat25 June 2015 13:29:43
ShelteredShelteredCoasts with a restricted fetch and/or open water window. Coasts can face prevailing winds but with a short fetch (< 20 km) or extensive shallow area offshore, or may face away from prevailing winds.WaveSheltered6 May 2015 14:57:53
SmallBouldersSmall boulders256 -512 mm; may be unstable.HardImmobile1 June 2015 16:40:14
SplashZoneSplash zoneRegion of the shore immediately above the highest levels of the water that is subject to wetting by splash from breaking waves (Lincoln et al., 1998).Supralittoral15 July 2015 15:45:01
SprayZoneSpray ZoneRegion of the shore immediately above the splash zone that is subject to wetting by the spray from breaking waves (Lincoln et al., 1998).Supralittoral28 May 2015 14:17:49
StraitSoundStrait or soundChannels between the mainland and an island or between two islands which are open at both ends to the open coast (it does not refer to similar features or narrows within marine inlets).Physiography29 May 2015 16:39:52
StrandlineStrand-lineA line on the shore composing debris deposited by a receding tide; commonly used to denote the line of debris at the level of extreme high water (Lincoln et al., 1998).FeaturesOther2 June 2015 14:00:17
StrongStrong3 to 6 knots (1.5-3 m/sec.)TidalStrength1 June 2015 13:29:53
SublittoralSublittoral1) The zone exposed to air only at its upper limit by the lowest spring tides, although almost continuous wave action on extremely exposed coasts may extend the upper limit high into the intertidal region. The sublittoral extends from the upper limit of the large kelps and includes, for practical purposes in nearshore areas, all depths below the littoral. Various sub-zones are recognized (based on Hiscock, 1985). 2) The marine zone extending from the lowest limit of the intertidal to the outer edge of the continental slope (rephrased from Lincoln et al., 1998).Benthic28 May 2015 15:22:57
SublittoralFringeSublittoral fringeThe upper part of the sublittoral zone which is uncovered by the tide. On hard substrata, the zone is characterized by the kelps Laminaria digitata and Alaria esculenta. The lower limit of this zone is marked by the upper limit of the truly sublittoral kelp Laminaria hyperborea (based on Lewis, 1964; Hiscock, 1996).Benthic28 May 2015 14:16:11
SubstratumHabitatSubstratumDescription of the substratum on or in which an organism is found or recorded.Habitat2 June 2015 09:09:38
SupralittoralSupralittoral1) The lower terrestrial zone, characteristically dominated by orange and white-to-grey lichens on hard substrata with scattered salt-tolerant higher plants and mosses (Hiscock, 1996). 2) The region of the shore directly above the highest water level and subject to wetting by spray or wave splash (Lincoln et al., 1998).Benthic28 May 2015 14:17:00
TerrestrialTerrestrialEnvironment6 May 2015 15:01:37
TidalStrengthTidal streams and water flow (range)The horizontal movement of water associated with the meteorological, oceanographical and topographical factors. High water flow rates result in areas where water is forced through or over restrictions for example narrows or around protruding offshore rocks. Tidal streams are associated with the rise and fall of the tide where as currents are defined as residual flow after the tidal element is removed (Hiscock, 1996).Habitat1 June 2015 13:28:58
ToleranceToleranceBased on AMBIHabitat2 June 2015 14:12:30
TypeIType ISpecies very sensitive to organic enrichment and present under unpolluted conditions (initial state). They include the specialist carnivores and some deposit-feeding tubicolous polychaetes.Tolerance6 May 2015 15:01:58
TypeIIType IISpecies indifferent to enrichment, always present in low densities with non-significant variations with time (from initial state, to slight unbalance). These include suspension feeders, less selective carnivores and scavengers.Tolerance6 May 2015 15:02:06
TypeIIIType IIISpecies tolerant to excess organic matter enrichment. These species may occur under normal conditions, but their populations are stimulated by organic richment (slight unbalance situations). They are surface deposit-feeding species, as tubicolous spionids.Tolerance6 May 2015 15:02:18
TypeIVType IVSecond-order opportunistic species (slight to pronounced unbalanced situations). Mainly small sized polychaetes: subsurface deposit-feeders, such as cirratulids.Tolerance6 May 2015 15:02:26
TypeVType VFirst-order opportunistic species (pronounced unbalanced situations). These are deposit- feeders, which proliferate in reduced sediments.Tolerance6 May 2015 15:03:19
UltraShelteredUltra shelteredFully enclosed coasts with a fetch measured in tens or at most a few hundred metres.WaveSheltered1 June 2015 11:45:38
UnderBouldersUnder bouldersHabitat associated with the underside of boulders.FeaturesOther2 June 2015 14:01:12
UnderIceUnder iceThe habitat formed by the underside of ice sheets at the interface of frozen ice and fluid seawater.IceAssociated28 May 2015 15:46:03
UpperCircalittoralUpper circalittoralDominated by animals with sparse foliose algae except where grazed. The part of the circalittoral subzone on hard substrata distinguished by the presence of scattered foliose algae amongst the dominating animals; its lower limit is the maximum limit of depth for foliose algae (based on Hiscock, 1985).Circalittoral28 May 2015 15:27:07
UpperEulittoralUpper littoralBarnacles and limpets present in quantity with Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum although often this belt has only sparse algal cover compared with the lower eulittoral (Hiscock, 1996).Eulittoral15 July 2015 15:42:27
UpperInfralittoralUpper infralittoralThe part of the infralittoral subzone which, on hard substrata, is dominated by Laminariales forming a dense canopy, or kelp forest (based on Hiscock, 1985).Infralittoral28 May 2015 15:25:11
UpperLittoralFringeUpper littoral fringeTop of the littoral fringe, characterized by Verrucaria maura with Littorina saxatilis and Littorina neritoides often present. May include saltmarsh species on shale/pebbles in shelter (Hiscock, 1996).Eulittoral28 May 2015 15:19:40
VerticalBiologicalZoneVertical biological zone (or zonation)A description of the vertical biological zone or zonation in which an organism resides. The zone is determined by depth, physical, chemical and biological factors.Distribution Descriptors8 July 2015 08:49:52
VeryExposedVery exposed1) Open coasts which face into prevailing winds and which receive wind-driven waves and oceanic swell without any offshore obstructions for several hundred kilometres, but where deep water is not close to the shore (50 m depth contour further than about 300 m). 2) Open coasts adjacent to extremely exposed sites but which face away from prevailing winds.WaveExposed1 June 2015 11:41:38
VeryShelteredVery shelteredCoasts with a fetch less than about 3 km where they face prevailing winds or about 20 km where they face away from prevailing winds, or which have offshore obstructions such as reefs or a narrow (<30°) open water window.WaveSheltered1 June 2015 11:46:09
VeryStrongVery strong>6 knots (>3 m/sec)TidalStrength15 July 2015 15:45:57
VeryWeakVery weakNegligibleTidalStrength1 June 2015 13:31:29
WaveExposedWave exposedDefined via traits - but included as some authors do not specify level of wave exposure.WaveExposure1 June 2015 11:38:50
WaveExposureWave exposureTraits that describe the range of exposure to wave action in which the organism is recorded.Habitat1 June 2015 12:08:23
WaveShelteredWave shelteredDefined via traits below - included as some authors do not specifyWaveExposure1 June 2015 11:44:27
WeakWeak<1 knot (<0.5 m/sec)TidalStrength1 June 2015 13:32:04

Ecological_Descriptors

Ecological Descriptors 
wikipagenameLabelDefinitionIs trait ofModification date
"Modification date" is a predefined property that corresponds to the date of the last modification of a subject and is provided by Semantic MediaWiki.
AccessoryFeedingStructuresAccessory feeding structuresOther structures such as palps, tentacles or a radiolar crown ("grooved palps"). There are forms of single pair of grooved palps nearly always attached dorsally or near the junction of the prostomium and peristomium, or multiple grooved palps sometimes forming a crown. Dorso lateral ciliated folds in the roof of the buccal cavity may be present in some polychaetes.Tentacles28 May 2015 11:45:52
AccretionAccretionAn organism that constructs reefs or raised beds of accreted materials, e.g. bound sand in Sabellaria spp.ReefBuilding14 May 2015 16:31:09
AerialDippingAerial dippingDipping15 July 2015 15:46:43
AerialHawkingAerial hawkingHawking15 July 2015 15:50:21
AggregationsAggregationsAn organism that constructs reefs and raised beds due to aggregation of large numbers of individuals via permanent or semi-permanent attachment e.g. mussels, oysters and Crepidula beds.ReefBuilding14 May 2015 16:32:11
AlgalGravelAlgal gravelConstructs deep beds of calcareous algal nodules, e.g. maerl bedsBedForming14 May 2015 16:27:34
AmbusherAmbusherSedentary or sessile predators, that wait for prey to come to them, and may or may not use a final pounce, traps or lures (e.g. sea anemones, large hydroids, spiders)Predator28 May 2015 09:54:50
AmorphousCaCO3Amorphous CaCO3calcium carbonate that lacks a crystalline structure, or whose internal is so irregular that there is no characteristic external form. The term does not preclude the existence of any degree of order (Derived from Neuendorf et al. 2005)CalcareousSkeleton23 February 2017 14:03:46
AnchorShapedAnchor-shapedE.g. Ceratium spp.BodyShape14 May 2015 10:32:44
AppendagesPaddlesAppendages (paddles)Swimming is effected one or more pairs of appendages (legs or paddles) e.g. the pleiopods of Isopod, Amphipod or Decapod crustaceans, or the legs of amphibious vertebrates.Swimmer29 July 2015 12:09:07
AragoniteAragonitea crystalline form of calcium carbonate, e.g. one of the constituents of mollusc shells.CalcareousSkeleton23 January 2017 12:27:43
ArborescentArbuscularArborescent/ArbuscularHaving the shape or characteristics of a tree.Erect7 November 2014 16:52:20
AristolesLanternAristotle's lanternSpecialist - sea urchinsFeedingApparatus28 May 2015 10:25:26
ArmsAppendagesArms or appendagesTraits that describe specialized limbs or appendages used to catch or process food items.FeedingApparatus28 May 2015 10:30:14
ArticulateArticulateJointed, arthrous (Holmes, 1979).BodyShape7 November 2014 17:21:49
AutotrophAutotrophSelf-feeding. An organism capable of synthesizing complex organic substances from simple inorganic substrates (Lincoln et al., 1998).FoodTypeDiet29 July 2015 11:29:51
BallooningKitingBallooning/KitingUse of a length of silk to be carried by the wind (e.g. spiders)Drifter29 July 2015 11:46:51
BeakBeake.g. birds / cephalopodsMouthParts7 November 2014 15:25:54
BedFormingBed formingAn organism that lives in large aggregations or beds (e.g. brittlestars, mussels, oysters, Crepidula etc, sea squirts)Biogenic14 May 2015 16:27:00
BiodiffusorBiodiffusorOrganisms whose activities that cause constant and random local sediment biomixing over short distances resulting in transport of sediment particles, analogous to molecular or eddy diffusion (from Kristensen et al., 2012). Includes epifaunal biodiffusers e.g. fiddler crabs; surficial biodiffusers e.g. Echinocardium; and gallery biodiffusers e.g. Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor.SedimentReworking28 May 2015 08:51:18
BiogenicBio-genicHabitat features created by living thingsHabitatModification29 July 2015 11:56:51
BitingMaceratingBiting or maceratingMouth parts designed to grasp and macerate food before swallowing (e.g. most vertebrates)MouthParts28 May 2015 11:31:36
BitingPiercingPiercing or suctorialMouth parts designed to pierce outside of food or prey and feed on internal fluids or tissuesMouthParts28 May 2015 11:30:38
BivalvedBivalvedCharacteristically a shell of two calcareous valves joined by a flexible ligament.BodyShape7 November 2014 17:22:17
BlindEndedVentilationBlind-ended ventilationOrganisms that live in 'I' or 'J' shaped burrows open at only one end where water is drawn through or diffuses out of the sediment e.g. Arenicola marina (adapted from Kristensen et al., 2012).SedimentReworking28 May 2015 09:04:02
BodyAccretionAccretionBuild up or accumulation of sediment.BodyShape7 November 2014 17:22:58
BodyAlgalGravelAlgal gravelMaerl; twig-like unattached (free-living) calcareous red algae, often a mixture of species and including species which form a spiky cover on loose small stones - 'hedgehog stones'.BodyShape14 May 2015 10:35:40
BodyFormBody formTraits relating to the form, shape and structure of the speciesEcological Descriptors29 July 2015 11:08:56
BodyShapeBody shapeOverall shape of the individual or colony (modular forms)BodyForm29 July 2015 11:09:33
BrowserBrowserFeeding on parts of plants (e.g. shoots, leaves, twigs) or parts of other organisms (e.g. siphon nipping by fish). (Lincoln et al., 1998).GrazerBrowser29 July 2015 11:13:59
BuccalOrgansAbsentBuccal organ absent or occludedThe buccal cavity lacks obvious differentiation of the wall and it is not eversible. Some species if buccal cavity present at all, is only a transient larval structure and becomes completely occluded.EversiblePharynx28 May 2015 13:31:17
BullateSaccateBullate/SaccateBalloon or sac-like (Prescott, 1969).BodyShape7 November 2014 17:23:09
BurrowBuilderBurrow builderAn organism that constructs permanent or semi-permanent burrows through physical excavation or chemical action.HabitatModification29 July 2015 11:57:04
BurrowerBurrowerAn organism that moves through the substratum by burrowing or tunneling (e.g. earthworms, polychaetes).Mobile14 May 2015 15:42:08
Bysso-PelagicBysso-pelagicUse of a length of byssus thread (e.g. micro-molluscs, juvenile molluscs) or mucus (e.g Nemertesia planulae) to be carried by water flowDrifter14 May 2015 15:48:11
CalcareousCalcareousAn organism that constructs reefs or biogenic structures composed of the calcareous skeletons of individuals or colonies (e.g. corals)ReefBuilding20 January 2017 14:17:40
CalcareousSkeletonCalcareousSkeleton composed of calcareous spicules (sponges/echinoderms), plates, spines, bones or other structuresSolid
NonSolidCement
NonSolidParticlesComp
10 March 2017 13:48:46
CalciteCalcitecrystalline form of calcium carbonate, e. g. one of the constituents of mollusc shells and the skeletons of calcareous sponges.CalcareousSkeleton23 January 2017 12:28:39
CapitateClubbedCapitate/ClubbedEnlarged or swollen at the apex, with a ‘head’, clubbed (Prescott, 1969).BodyShape14 May 2015 10:36:25
CaptaculaCaptaculaspecialist - scaphopodsFeedingApparatus7 November 2014 15:20:38
CarnivoreCarnivoreAn organism that feeds on animal tissue/meat.Heterotroph7 December 2015 15:29:25
CephalicSpinesCephalic spinesspecialist - chaetognathsFeedingApparatus15 July 2015 16:02:51
ChainsChainsForming chains of individualsBodyShape7 November 2014 17:23:51
ChemoautotrophChemoautotrophAn organism that obtains metabolic energy from oxidation of inorganic substrates such as sulphur, nitrogen or iron (e.g. some micro-organisms) (Lincoln et al., 1998).Autotroph22 May 2015 13:28:34
ChitinousChitinouscomposed of chitin, a long-chain polymer of N-acetylglucosamine. It is the chief polysaccharide in fungal cell walls and in the exoskeleton of arthropods (derived form Lawrence, 2005).Solid14 March 2017 08:07:51
ChoanocytesChoanocytesSpecial feeding cell of spongesFeedingApparatus7 November 2014 14:38:34
CiliaFlagellaCilia/FlagellaSwimming is effected by beating of cilia and or flagella; includes the fused cilia of Ctenophores.Swimmer29 July 2015 12:09:38
ClathrateClathrateLatticed (Holmes, 1979).BodyShape7 November 2014 17:24:01
ClawedClawede.g. MammalsGraspingPaws7 November 2014 15:04:04
Colonial (e.g. sea birds)Colonial (e.g. sea birds)Organisms that come together in large colonies (100 plus individuals) - often in the same area from season to season - usually for breeding purposesGregarious20 May 2015 16:15:20
Commensal (with/on/in)Commensal (with/on/in)Symbiosis (q.v.) in which one species derives benefit from a common food supply, whilst the other species is not adversely affected (Lincoln et al., 1998).Symbiotic20 May 2015 16:04:37
ConeHalfSphereCone with half sphereCone with a half sphere (Olenina et al., 2006).BodyShape14 May 2015 11:16:10
ConicalCone (Conical)Cone shaped e.g. limpet-shaped, patelliform (adapted from Stachowitsch, 1992).BodyShape14 May 2015 10:44:43
ContactDippingContact dippingDipping15 July 2015 15:47:55
CoralSandsCoral (or similar) sandsDeposition of sands formed by the breakdown to the skeletons of living organismsBedForming14 May 2015 15:01:16
CrawlerWalkerClimberCrawler/Walker/ClimberAn organism that moves across, up or down the substratum via movements of its legs, appendages or muscles (e.g. Carcinus).Mobile29 July 2015 11:45:16
CreeperCreeperAn organism that moves slowly or 'creeps' across the surface of the substratumMobile14 May 2015 15:45:52
CruisingCruisingcopepod / zooplankton specific??SearcherForager7 November 2014 12:50:31
CrustoseHardCrustose hardForming or resembling a crust (Thompson, 1995) that is solid or resistant to touch or pressure e.g. encrusting coralline algae or sea mats such as Umbonula littoralis.Encrusting14 May 2015 11:34:23
CrustoseSoftCrustose softForming or resembling a crust (Thompson, 1995) that yields to the touch or pressure e.g. the gelatinous colonies of Botryllus schlosseri or soft cushions of sponges such as Halichondria sp.Encrusting14 May 2015 11:35:09
CtenidiaCtenidiae.g bivalve molluscsGills7 November 2014 14:54:55
CushionCushionA mass or pillow of soft material.Encrusting7 November 2014 17:03:47
CylindricalCylindricalWith straight sides and a circular section (Thompson, 1995).BodyShape7 November 2014 17:24:49
DabblingDabblingSeabirds/waders?SearcherForager11 November 2014 10:19:47
DeOxygenationToleranceDe-Oxygenation ToleranceMin ValueEcophysiology7 November 2014 15:30:28
DendroidDendroidBranching irregularly – similar to that of a root system (Prescott, 1969).BodyShape7 November 2014 17:28:03
DependancyDependencyDescription of an organism's relationship with other organismsModeOfLife29 July 2015 11:38:38
DepositFeederDeposit FeederAn organism that feeds on fragmented particulate organic matter within or on the substratum (adapted from Lincoln et al., 1998).FeedingMethodBehaviour29 July 2015 11:20:57
DetritivoreDetritivoreAn organism that feeds on fragmented particulate organic matter (detritus) (Lincoln et al., 1998).Heterotroph22 May 2015 13:30:36
DielDielDaily, pertaining to a 24 hour period.Migratory7 November 2014 16:10:06
DigitateDigitateHaving parts arranged like fingers on a hand (Holmes, 1979).BodyShape7 November 2014 17:28:44
DippingDippingseabird specific?PursuitHunterCooperative29 July 2015 11:49:35
DippingToSurfaceDipping to surfaceDipping29 July 2015 11:26:01
DispersalPotentialAdultDispersal potential (adult)The distance over which the adult organism is able to roam, travel or disperse; the greatest potnetial or recorded distance. Does not acknowledge limitations due to geography, hydrography, or behavioural (territorial) constraints.Movement29 July 2015 12:07:55
DivingDivingSeabird specific?PursuitHunterCooperative29 July 2015 11:49:57
DoubleConeDouble coneDouble cone (Olenina et al., 2006)BodyShape14 May 2015 11:17:04
DownwardConveyorDownward conveyorOrganisms that live vertically in the sediment, typically heads-up at the surface, and that ingest particles at the surface and egest them as faeces at depth in the sediment (adapted from Kristensen et al., 2012).SedimentReworking28 May 2015 08:51:52
DrifterDrifterAn organism whose movement is dependent on wind or water currents (e.g. Aurelia).Mobile14 May 2015 15:46:22
DrivingFishForwardDriving Fish Forwardseabird, cetaceans?PursuitHunterCooperative29 July 2015 11:50:23
Ecological DescriptorsEcological DescriptorsCollection of traits relating to species ecologyMarine species traits26 September 2014 12:39:07
EcologicalInteractionEcological InteractionTraits relating to how a species interacts with it's surrounding environment and other associated species.Ecological Descriptors29 July 2015 11:55:41
EcophysiologyEcophysiologyTraits that describe an physiological and environmental tolerance of an organismEcological Descriptors28 May 2015 13:42:04
EctoparasiticEctoparasiticParasitic on the outer surface of its host (adapted from Lincoln et al., 1998).Parasite20 May 2015 15:53:31
EncrustingEncrustingForms or resembles a crust over a substratum or other organismsBodyShape7 November 2014 17:24:54
EndoparasiticEndoparasiticParasitic within the tissues or organs of its host (see Lincoln et al., 1998).Parasite20 May 2015 15:54:36
EndoskeletonEndoskeletoninternal structure that supports the body of an organismSupportingStructuresEnclosures10 March 2017 13:55:09
ErectErectMain visible parts of organism stand upright and above the surface of the substratum.BodyShape14 May 2015 11:36:40
EversiblePharynxEversible pharynxPharynx can be everted to engulf and/or seize food itemsFeedingApparatus28 May 2015 13:30:09
ExoskeletonExoskeleton (including shells)A rigid external structure that supports and/or protects the body of an organism and that is mainly completely secreted by the epidermis (derived from Lawrence 2005).SupportingStructuresEnclosures10 March 2017 13:56:15
ExternalTubeExternal TubeA built-structure inhabited by an organism and essential to its survival, but not part of its body, composed of hardened (either rigid or flexible) secretions, with or without the addition of embedded particles, with those particles either selectively collected from the environment or passively becoming glued during formation (pers. comm. Read, G.).SupportingStructuresEnclosures14 March 2017 08:01:54
FaunalBedsFaunal bedsDense aggregation of animals that visually dominate the seabed or shore such as brittlestars (e.g. Ophiothrix fragilis ) or mussels (e.g. Mytilus edulis).BodyShape14 May 2015 10:48:06
FeedingFeedingTraits related to how an organism feeds, the food type and feeding method exhibited by a speciesEcological Descriptors22 May 2015 13:25:32
FeedingApparatusFeeding apparatusDescription of the apparatus (mechanism) used to collect/capture foodFeeding28 May 2015 10:26:38
FeedingMethodBehaviourFeeding Method/BehaviourA description of how the oganism gathers food, and from whereFeeding29 July 2015 11:20:27
FilerBasketFilter basketSpecialist e.g. sea squirtsGills28 May 2015 11:26:50
FiliformFiliformSlender and thread-like (Kozloff, 1996).BodyShape10 November 2014 09:11:24
FlabellateFlabellateShaped like a fan, fanlike (Brusca, 1980).BodyShape10 November 2014 09:13:02
FlaccidFlaccidSoft, limp, flabby (Brusca, 1980).BodyShape10 November 2014 09:25:01
FlattenedEllipsoidFlattened EllipsoidFlattened ellipsoid (Olenina et al., 2006)BodyShape14 May 2015 11:39:28
FlexibilityFlexibilityAn indication of how far an organism can bend/flex without breaking or suffering damage - High (>45°) / Low (10 – 45°) / None (<10°)BodyForm29 July 2015 11:08:00
FloatingFloatingSeabirds/waderSearcherForager7 November 2014 13:07:48
FlyerFlightFlyer (Flight)An organism able to propel itself though the air e.g. using wings, such as winged insects, birdsMobile29 July 2015 11:44:30
FolioseFolioseBearing leaves or leaf-like structures; having the appearance of a leaf.BodyShape10 November 2014 09:30:01
FollowingFishingBoatsFollowing Fishing BoatsSeabirdsSearcherForager7 November 2014 13:08:42
FoodPiracyFood PiracyStealing food from other birds in flightPursuitHunterCooperative29 July 2015 11:50:33
FoodTypeDietFood Type/DietDescription of the source of the organisms nurishment, i.e. what it feeds onFeeding29 July 2015 11:29:34
FootPaddlingFoot PaddlingSeabirds/WaderSearcherForager7 November 2014 13:10:14
FootStirringFoot StirringSeabirds/WaderSearcherForager7 November 2014 13:09:21
ForestForestA dense stand of large plants in which the upper branches (trees) or laminae (macroalgae) overlap to form a canopy that shades the under story of flora and fauna.Erect7 November 2014 16:53:08
ForestFormingForest-formingAn organism that forms a large area of close individuals forming a canopy (e.g. trees, large kelps).Biogenic14 May 2015 16:28:55
FragileFragileLikely to break, or crack as a result of physical impact; brittle or friable.Fragility10 November 2014 10:20:43
FragilityFragilityA qualitative estimate of the susceptibility of a species to physical damage.BodyForm29 July 2015 11:08:11
FreeLivingFree livingFree living - little modificationHabitatModification15 April 2016 12:12:35
FunnelShapedFunnel ShapedShaped like a funnelBodyShape10 November 2014 09:31:50
GillRakersGill rakersSpecialist - e.g. planktivorous fish such as basking sharkGills28 May 2015 11:28:07
GillsGillsWhere the respiratory organs also power and/or provide a feeding apparatus (muco-cilliary feeding)FeedingApparatus7 November 2014 14:53:59
GliderGliderAn organism that is able to glide through the air (e.g. using some form of membrane) but cannot propel itself through the air (e.g. flying fish)Mobile14 May 2015 15:52:45
GloboseGloboseApproximately spherical, ovoid or globular (Brusca, 1980).BodyShape14 May 2015 10:50:04
GorgoninGorgoninfibrous protein in the mesoglea of sea fans (gorgonians) which forms the stiff skeleton of the colony.Solid23 January 2017 12:26:55
GraspingGraspingTentacles that grab and grasp food itemsTentacles7 November 2014 14:43:19
GraspingClawsGrasping clawsAppendages bear grasping claws (chelae) - e.g. arthropods, crabs, scorpionsArmsAppendages28 May 2015 10:30:41
GraspingPawsGrasping paws, hands, feetVertebrate hands, feat, paws etc designed to grasp food items using claws, talons etc.ArmsAppendages28 May 2015 10:31:47
GrazerGrazerFeeding on herbage, algae or phytoplankton by consuming the whole plant or the surface growth (Lincoln et al., 1998)GrazerBrowser29 July 2015 11:15:34
GrazerBrowserGrazer/BrowserGenerally mobile consumers of sessile prey (e.g. plants, hydroids) cropping exposed tissues usually without killing the whole individual or colony.FeedingMethodBehaviour29 July 2015 11:21:09
GrazerFrondsBladesGrazer (fronds/blades)Animals that rasp benthic algae (or sessile animals, such as bryozoan crusts) from the surface of macroalgal fronds and blades (Hiscock et al., 1999).Grazer29 July 2015 11:16:03
GrazerGrainsParticlesGrazer (grains / particles)Animals that rasp benthic algae (or sessile animals, such as bryozoan crusts) from inorganic particles e.g. sand grains (MarLIN; Hiscock et al., 1999).Grazer29 July 2015 11:16:15
GrazerSurfaceSubstratumGrazer (surface/substratum)Animals that rasp benthic algae (or sessile animals, such as bryozoan crusts) from the substratum (MarLIN; Hiscock et al., 1999).Grazer29 July 2015 11:16:28
GregariousGregariousLiving in groups or communities, growing in clusters (Thompson, 1995) - where the organisms actively seek out members of the same species as adult or larvae/juveniles for protection from the environment, predators or for breedingSociability20 May 2015 16:11:58
GroundForagingGround Foragingseabirds?SearcherForager7 November 2014 12:59:28
GrowthFormGrowth form (or type)Deterministic growth or indeterminate growth resulting in single unitary individuals or modular (colonial) organisms.BodyForm29 July 2015 11:07:08
GrowthRateGrowth Rate(expressed as µm, mm, cm per day/month/year)Ecophysiology7 November 2014 15:28:58
HabitatModificationHabitat modificationA general term to describe how the organism lives in or interacts with its habitat (adapted from BIOTIC, Bolam et al., 2013).EcologicalInteraction29 July 2015 11:56:31
HalfConeHalf coneHalf cone (Olenina et al., 2006)BodyShape14 May 2015 11:17:47
HalfConeFlattenedEllipsoidHalf cone with flattened ellipsoidHalf cone with flattened ellipsoid (Olenina et al., 2006)BodyShape14 May 2015 11:26:16
HalfParallelepipedHalf parallelepipedHalf parallelepiped (Olenina et al., 2006)BodyShape14 May 2015 11:18:43
HalfSphereDomeHalf sphere (dome)Half sphere (dome)BodyShape14 May 2015 11:27:25
HawkingHawkingPursuitHunterCooperative29 July 2015 11:50:44
HeightAboveSubstratumHeight (above substratum)Height above the surface of the substratum of an individual or single modular colony. e.g a blade of seagrass, a seaweed thallus, projecting tube worm, upright sea pen etc.BodyForm29 July 2015 11:08:29
HerbivoreHerbivoreAn organism which only feeds on plants, including phytoplankton.Heterotroph7 November 2014 16:30:39
HeterotrophHeterotrophAn organism that obtains nourishment from exogenous (external) organic material (Lincoln et al., 1998).FoodTypeDiet29 July 2015 11:30:00
HighMagnesiumCalciteHigh Magnesium CalciteCalcite where more then 8wt.% CaCO3 is substituted by MgCO3.CalcareousSkeleton23 January 2017 12:20:38
HostHostAn organism that provides food or shelter for another organisms, e.g. the inhabited symbiont. May be a definitive host infected by an adult stage or an intermediate host infected by life stages (see Lincoln et al., 1998).Support20 May 2015 16:22:49
HoverDippingHover dippingDipping15 July 2015 15:48:16
HoveringHoveringBird/insect specificPursuitHunterCooperative29 July 2015 11:51:06
HydrostaticHydrostatic skeletonSkeletal support provided by hydrostatic pressure from a fluid filled cavity (e.g. the coelum) surrounded by muscles. Hydrostatic pressure provides skeletal support in sea anemones, jellyfish, nematodes, annelids, echinoderms, and other groups.SupportingStructuresEnclosures23 January 2017 10:15:04
Independant (Free living)Independant (free living)Independant, individual organismsDependancy20 May 2015 15:40:41
InhalentSiphonInhalent siphonSpecialist - modified siphon to capture preyFeedingApparatus15 July 2015 16:07:45
InquilinistInquilinistA symbiotic association in which one symbiont lives in close association with another, generally in the tube or burrow or actually within a body chamber of the host (Brusca, 1980).Symbiotic20 May 2015 16:06:10
IntermediaryIntermediaryLiable to suffer minor damage, chips or cracks as result of physical impacts.Fragility10 November 2014 10:21:25
IntrovertIntrovertspecialist - sipunculansFeedingApparatus7 November 2014 15:19:53
JetPropulsionJet propulsionSwimming is effected by contraction of the body or body cavity to produce a 'jet' of water, e.g. medusae and cephalopods (from Barnes et al., 2006)Swimmer29 July 2015 12:08:44
Jumper/HopperJumper/HopperOrganisms able to undertake a rapid jump or hop several times their own body length, using specialised limbs or appendages (e.g. sand hoppers, spring tails, grass hoppers etc)Mobile7 November 2014 16:06:49
KeratinousKeratinouscomposed of keratin, a fibrous protein rich cysteine constituent of intermediate filaments (keratin filaments), chief material in horn, hair, nails and the upper layer of skin (derived from Lawrence, 2005).Solid14 March 2017 08:08:34
KleptoparasitismKleptoparasitismIn which the female of one species steals the food reserves or prey of a female of another species, to feed her own progeny (Lincoln et al., 1998)FeedingMethodBehaviour29 July 2015 11:21:35
LanceolateLanceolateLance shaped and usually elongate (Brusca, 1980).BodyShape10 November 2014 09:51:21
LargeInsectColoniesLarge (insect colonies)Large colonies of indivduals cooperating for mutual benefit, made up of thousnads or more individuals, often with a dominant matriach, e.g. social incests , bees etc.SocialGroup29 July 2015 11:34:28
LophophoreLophophoreSpecialist - filter feeding organ e.g. brachiopods, phoronids, bryozoansFeedingApparatus28 May 2015 13:38:41
LuresLuresAn organism that uses a lure to attract prey within range of its 'pounce' attackPouncing28 May 2015 09:59:55
MassiveMassiveBulky (Homes, 1979).BodyShape10 November 2014 09:52:02
MatMatA dense mass which blankets the substratum.Encrusting7 November 2014 17:04:26
MedusiformMedusiform/MedusoidDisk, bell or umbrella shaped and often gelatinous (Barnes et al., 1988).BodyShape10 November 2014 09:56:40
MigratoryMigration (migratory)Periodic movement of organisms between alternative habitats e.g. between areas for reproduction and one or more areas of non-reproductive activity, or between areas of foraging and areas used for other activities. Most migrations occur at predictable intervals triggered by stimuli e.g. unfavourable conditions. NB: Movements that do not include an obligatory return journey are classified as dispersal (Baretta-Bekker et al., 1992).Movement14 May 2015 16:15:38
MixedCalcareousMaterialMixed Calcareous MaterialSkeleton composed of a mixture of any of aragonite, calcite, high magnesium calcite or amorphous CaCO3CalcareousSkeleton20 January 2017 14:20:57
MixotrophMixotrophAn organism that exhibts both autotrophy and heterotrophyFoodTypeDiet29 July 2015 11:30:11
MobileMobileCapable of movementMobility7 November 2014 15:58:50
MobilityMobilityMovement7 November 2014 15:59:42
ModeOfLifeMode of LifeTraits relating to the mode of life a species exhibitsEcological Descriptors29 July 2015 11:38:08
ModularModularOrganisms that grow by the repeated iteration of parts, e.g. the leaves, shoots and branches of a plant, the polyps of a coral or bryozoan. Modular organisms are almost always branched, though the connections between branches may separate or decay and the separated parts may in many cases then become physiologically independent (Begon et al., 2005).Growth Form14 May 2015 10:08:36
MonoraphidioidMonoraphidioidResembling a crescent moon (see Olenina et al., 2006)BodyShape14 May 2015 11:20:47
MouthPartsMouth partsTraits that describes specialized mouth partsFeedingApparatus28 May 2015 11:29:53
MovementMovementTraits relating to the movement of the speciesEcological Descriptors12 January 2015 17:44:20
MucusMeshMucus mesh or netSecretion of a simple or complex mucus mesh to filter food particles from water column (e.g polychaetes Chaetopterus and larvaceans.FeedingApparatus28 May 2015 11:33:07
Muscular Contraction (body length)Muscular contraction (body length)Swimming is effected by muscular contractions along the length of the body, which may be aided by body protrusions or structures (e.g. parapodia, fins).Swimmer15 July 2015 16:09:35
MuscularAxialProboscisMuscular axial proboscisThe proboscis has thickened, strongly muscular walls and can be retracted into a sheath. In other cases the pharynx is partially retracted and partially inverted. The mouth proper is located at the tip of the pharynx when fully everted. While some taxa have a jaw-less proboscis, others have jaws present as a bilaterally arranged pair, as one or two dorso-ventrally arranged pairs or as two pairs forming a cross.EversiblePharynx28 May 2015 13:32:02
MutualistMutualismMutualist (mutualism)A symbiosis in which both organisms benefit; frequently a relationship of complete dependence. (Lincoln et al., 1998) (cf.symbiosis, commensalism, parasite).Symbiotic29 July 2015 11:36:22
NonMigratoryResidentNon-migratory (resident)Remaining within the same area (from Lincoln et al.,1998).Migratory29 July 2015 12:04:08
NonSolidCementNon-solid; cementcomponent that keeps the agglutinated particles of the non-massive skeleton together.Endoskeleton
Exoskeleton
ExternalTube
23 January 2017 12:56:15
NonSolidParticlesCompNon-solid; particlessmall and individual structural elements that function as supporting structure/enclosure, e.g. spicules in sponges.Endoskeleton
Exoskeleton
ExternalTube
14 March 2017 07:57:26
NonTerritorialNon-TerritorialIndependent without a defined territorySolitary29 July 2015 11:32:36
NonfeedingNon-FeedingNon-feeding life stages (e.g. lecithotroph)FeedingMethodBehaviour29 July 2015 11:21:49
OmnivoreOmnivoreAn organism which feeds on a mixed diet including plant and animal material (from Lincoln et al., 1998).Heterotroph22 May 2015 13:31:20
OntogeneticMigrationOntogenetic migrationDifferent life stages migrate into different habitats, or part of habitat (e.g. copepods) (Lincoln et al., 1998).Migratory29 July 2015 12:04:20
OpenEndedVentilationOpen-ended ventilationOrganisms that live in a 'U' or 'Y' shaped burrow where water is drawn through the burrow (adapted from Kristensen et al., 2012).SedimentReworking28 May 2015 09:05:54
OralPodiaOral podiaSpecialist - modified tube feet in holothuriansTentacles28 May 2015 11:49:22
OrganicOrganic(1) derived from, or showing the properties of a living organism; (2) containing carbon, applied to molecules.NonSolidCement23 January 2017 12:37:41
OtherOtherDrifter14 May 2015 15:50:06
OvalCylinderOval cylinderAn ellipsoid on an elliptic base (Olenina et al., 2006)BodyShape14 May 2015 11:21:54
PalpsPalpsSpecialist - Protobranch molluscsTentacles7 November 2014 14:50:22
PapillaePapillae or tube feetAppendages bear mucus laden papilae or tube feet (e.g. suspension feeding echinoderns, brittlestars, crinoids).ArmsAppendages28 May 2015 11:24:02
ParallelepipedRhomboidParallelepiped (rhomboid)In geometry, a parallelepiped is a three-dimensional figure formed by six parallelograms (the term rhomboid is also sometimes used with this meaning)BodyShape14 May 2015 11:23:34
ParasiteParasiticAn organism that is intimately associated with, and metabolically dependent on, another organism (termed the host) for completion of its life cycle and which is detrimental to the host (see Lincoln et al., 1998)Dependancy20 May 2015 16:03:55
ParasiticFeedingParasiticAn organism that is intimately associated with, and metabolically dependant on another living organism, for completion of its life cycle, and which is detrimental to the host to a lesser or greater extent.FeedingMethodBehaviour29 July 2015 11:21:58
ParasitoidParasitoidAn organism intermediate between a parasite and a predator; e.g. hymenopterans where the larvae feed within the tissue of a living host, leading to the death of the host (adapted from Lincoln et al., 1998).FeedingMethodBehaviour29 July 2015 11:22:20
PassivePassiveCatching food on a filter held into flowing water (e.g. hydroids, sea fans, sea pens), or collecting the 'rain' of detritus on sticky apparatus other than a filter (e.g. Cucumaria frondosa, proboscis of echinurans) (MarLIN; Hiscock et al. 1999).SuspensionFeeder29 July 2015 11:24:03
PassiveDrifterPassive drifterMovement dependent on wind or water currentsDrifter29 July 2015 11:47:00
PatteringPatteringseabirds/waderSearcherForager7 November 2014 13:05:28
PenicillatePenicillateBrush like (Prescott ,1969).BodyShape10 November 2014 10:01:21
PhagocytosisPhagocytosisEngulfing prey/food item in cytoplasmFeedingApparatus7 November 2014 14:37:32
PhosphaticPhosphaticcomposed of phosphoric acid or phosphates.Solid20 January 2017 15:49:41
PhotoautotrophPhotoautotrophAn organism that obtains metabolic energy from light by a photochemical process such as photosynthesis (e.g. seaweeds, phytoplankton) (Lincoln et al., 1998).Autotroph22 May 2015 13:29:07
PhotosyntheticPigmentPhotosynthetic pigment(s)Ecophysiology15 July 2015 16:10:20
PickingfromWaterSurfacePicking from the water surfaceSeabirds/waderSearcherForager15 July 2015 16:11:42
PiercingToxicPiercingSpecialist - modified radula used to inject toxins, e.g. cone shellsRadulae28 May 2015 11:43:41
PinnatePinnateBranching like a feather – an elongate main axis with lateral branches or lobes (Prescott, 1969).BodyShape10 November 2014 10:02:05
PinnateBranchingPinnate or branchingBranched tentacles, used as filtration mechanismTentacles28 May 2015 11:50:17
PisciformPisciformFish-likeBodyShape10 November 2014 10:02:55
PlungeDivingPlunge DivingPlunging7 November 2014 12:39:13
PlungingPlungingSeabird specific?PursuitHunterCooperative29 July 2015 11:51:16
PouncingPouncingAn ambush predator that uses a sudden, rapid movement to 'pounce on, grab or swallow' its prey once the prey in within short range.Ambusher28 May 2015 09:58:44
PredatorPredator (Hunter)Predatory behaviour in which one animal species captures a member of another species (Lincoln et al., 1998). OR mobile animals that attack kill and consume individual prey items, usually one at a time.FeedingMethodBehaviour29 July 2015 11:22:44
ProbingProbingseabirds/waderSearcherForager7 November 2014 13:00:34
PursuitDivingPursuit DivingDiving7 November 2014 12:26:04
PursuitHunterCooperativePursuit hunter (co-operative)An organism that hunts in a team, pack, pod, flock, swarm etcPredator29 July 2015 11:49:11
PursuitHunterIndividualPursuit Hunter (individual)An organism that chases after, catches and subdues mobile prey (e.g. predatory polychaetes, squid, fish, otter, seal, seabirds)Predator29 July 2015 11:25:26
PursuitPlungingPursuit PlungingPlunging7 November 2014 12:40:37
RadialRadialSymmetrical about any plane passed perpendicular to the oral/aboral axis (Barnes et al., 1993).BodyShape14 May 2015 11:30:52
RadulaeRadulaeSpecialist - protrusile anterior region of digestive tract; refers to chitinized teeth along the radular membrane (Stachowitsch, 1992).FeedingApparatus28 May 2015 11:38:25
RaspingRaspingspecialist - rasping radulla of grazing molluscsRadulae7 November 2014 15:08:01
ReefBuildingReef-buildingAn organism that forms large areas of hard substratum for other organisms due to the scale of its aggregations (e.g. horse mussels), accretions (e.g. Sabellaria) or its skeleton (e.g. corals).Biogenic14 May 2015 16:30:16
RegeneratorRegeneratorOrganisms that excavate and maintain burrows in the sediment, which result in sediment transport from depth to the surface (adapted from Kristensen et al., 2012.SedimentReworking28 May 2015 08:55:05
ReticulateReticulateIn the form of a mesh or net (Prescott, 1969).BodyShape10 November 2014 10:04:30
RobustRobustUnlikely to be damaged as a result of physical impacts, e.g. hard or tough enough to withstand impact, or leathery or wiry enough to resist impact.Fragility10 November 2014 10:22:06
RotationalEllipsoidRotational ellipsoidRotational ellipsoid (Olenina et al., 2006)BodyShape14 May 2015 11:28:57
SaprophageSaprophageAn organism that feeds on dead or decaying organic material (see Lincoln et al., 1998).Heterotroph22 May 2015 13:32:16
ScavengerScavengerAn organism that feeds on carrion and organic refuse (e.g. crabs, whelks) (Lincoln et al., 1998).FeedingMethodBehaviour29 July 2015 11:23:12
SearcherForagerSearcher/ForagerActive foragers that seek out prey usually of lower mobility (than themselves) e.g. arthropods (crabs, spiders) gastropods, starfishPredator28 May 2015 10:12:57
SeasonalEnvironmentSeasonal (environment)A seasonal migration in order to remain within suitable environmental conditions.Migratory29 July 2015 12:04:36
SeasonalFeedingSeasonal (feeding)A seasonal migration for the purpose of following food or moving to suitable feeding groundsMigratory29 July 2015 12:04:51
SeasonalReproductionSeasonal (reproduction)A seasonal migration in order to reproduce.Migratory29 July 2015 12:03:36
SedimentReworkingSediment reworkingDescription of how an organism modifies or changes the physico-chemical nature of the habitat itself, e.g sediment reworking, deposition of faeces, or burrowingHabitatModification29 July 2015 11:58:24
SeizingSeizingSeabird specific - probably not - large predators that pounce and grab alsoPursuitHunterCooperative29 July 2015 11:51:27
SessileSessileNon-motile; permanently attached at the base (Lincoln et al., 1998) (e.g. Caryophyllia).Mobility14 May 2015 16:06:42
SetoseSetose (Hairy)Appendages (arms, specialisted mothparts) used to capture suspended particulatesArmsAppendages7 November 2014 14:58:48
ShallowPlungingShallow plungingPlunging15 July 2015 16:12:42
ShrubShrubHaving a very short stem with branches near the ground (Thompson, 1995).Erect7 November 2014 16:53:50
SiliceousSiliceouscomposed of silicon based spines, spicules or lattice, e.g. siliceous or glass spongesSolid20 January 2017 15:41:47
SimpleAxialProboscisSimple axial proboscisA sac-like proboscis relying on fluid pressure from the coelom for eversion. There is no particular development of musculature or glands. The worms tend to have reduced septa in the anterior part of the body allowing the contruction of the posterior part of the body to exert considerable force on the proboscis because of the free movement of the coelomic contents. Muscles associated with a thickened first septum (gular membrane) and the proboscis are used for retraction.EversiblePharynx28 May 2015 13:33:33
SkimmingSkimmingseabirds/waderSearcherForager7 November 2014 13:04:30
SmallTribePridePackPodSmall (tribe/pride/pack/pod)Small group of individuals that work together for mutual benefit, often held together by familial (matriarchal/patriarchal) bonds (e.g. a pack or wolves, a pod of dolphin, a pride of lions, a tribe of humans).SocialGroup29 July 2015 11:34:39
SnatchingSnatchingAmbusher28 May 2015 10:04:40
SociabilitySociabilityTraits that describe an organism's behavioural interactions with members of the same species.ModeOfLife29 July 2015 11:38:49
SocialGroupSocial groupCooperative groups of the same species - e.g. social insects, mammalsSociability29 July 2015 11:34:17
SolidSolidmassive structure, e.i. not consisting of loose agglutinated particles.Endoskeleton
Exoskeleton
ExternalTube
23 February 2017 12:44:51
SolitarySolitaryLiving alone, not gregarious (Thompson 1995).Sociability7 November 2014 16:20:48
SphereSphere (spherical)A sphere or globeBodyShape14 May 2015 11:32:07
SponginousSponginouscomposed of spongin, fibrous protein component of the horny sponges (derived from Lawrence, 2005).Solid14 March 2017 08:09:22
StacksStacksStacks of indivudal cells/frustules (e.g. in diatoms), like a pack of cards.BodyShape10 November 2014 10:06:51
StellateStellateArranged like a star.BodyShape10 November 2014 10:07:37
StickyMucusSticky or mucus coveredTentacles used to collect particluate food (e.g. polychaete deposit feeders)Tentacles28 May 2015 11:53:31
StingingStingingTentacles that bear stinging cells to catch, subdue prey (e.g. Cnidaria)Tentacles7 November 2014 14:46:24
StraplikeStraplike/RibbonlikeIn the form of a strap or ribbon.BodyShape10 November 2014 10:08:20
StunAttackStun attackAn organism that uses pulses of electricity or sound to stun prey (e.g. pistol shrimp)Ambusher28 May 2015 10:06:03
SubstratumSubstratumAn organism that provide substratum for specific other organisms, rarely found on other organisms, a ubiquitous relationship.Support20 May 2015 16:23:45
SubsurfaceDepositFeederSub-surface deposit feederAn organism that feeds on fragmented particulate organic matter within the substratum (e.g. Echinocardium cordatum) (adapted from Lincoln et al., 1998).DepositFeeder22 May 2015 13:41:26
SubsurfaceSeizingSubsurface seizingSeizing15 July 2015 16:13:17
SuctorialSuctorial (sucker bearing)Appendages that bear suckers on muscular arms to hold and subdue prey (e.g cephalopods)ArmsAppendages28 May 2015 11:24:53
SupportSupportAn organism that provides 'support' for other organisms, either as a host for a symbiote or parasite, or as substratum for epibiota.ModeOfLife29 July 2015 11:38:59
SupportingStructuresEnclosuresSupporting Structures and EnclosuresHard framework, internal or external, which supports and protects softer parts of plant, animal or unicellular organism, and to which muscles usually attach in animals, includes skeletons (derived from Lawrence, 2005).BodyForm23 February 2017 11:14:46
SurfaceDabblingSurface dabblingDabbling15 July 2015 16:13:41
SurfaceDepositFeederSurface deposit feederAn organism that feeds on fragmented particulate organic matter on the surface of the substratum (e.g. Corophium volutator) (adapted from Lincoln et al., 1998).DepositFeeder22 May 2015 13:42:07
SurfaceDippingSurface dippingDipping15 July 2015 15:49:04
SurfaceDivingSurface DivingDiving7 November 2014 12:21:36
SurfacePlungingSurface plungingPlunging15 July 2015 16:14:18
SurfaceSeizingSurface seizingSeizing15 July 2015 16:14:44
SuspensionFeederSuspension feederOrganisms that strain food from the surrounding water. They can range in complexity from sponges and corals to baleen whales. They live on organisms or debris that drifts past them, or they seek out small floating or swimming organisms (Charton, 2001).FeedingMethodBehaviour13 December 2016 15:02:13
SwimmerSwimmerAn organism that moves through the water column via movements of its cilia, flagella, fins, legs or appendages, via undulatory movements of the body or via jet propulsion (e.g. Gadus, Loligo).Mobile14 May 2015 15:55:24
SwimmingSwimmingSeabirds/waderSearcherForager7 November 2014 13:11:25
SymbiontContributionSymbiont contributionWhere some dietary component(s) are provided by symbiotic organisms (e.g. Anemonia with zooxanthellae).Heterotroph29 July 2015 11:27:03
SymbioticSymbioticAn association between two organisms. The term may bused to describe all associations between organisms of the same or different species. It is usually reserved for associations that are mutually beneficial (adapted from Lincoln et al., 1998)Dependancy20 May 2015 16:02:30
TadpoleTadpoleHaving the body form of a tadpole i.e. consisting of a round head with a tail.BodyShape10 November 2014 10:08:59
TalonsTalonse.g. birdsGraspingPaws7 November 2014 15:04:44
TempRangeTemperature range toleratedMin/Max ValueEcophysiology15 July 2015 16:15:39
TemporaryAttachmentTemporary attachmentAn organism that can temporarily attach to a substratum but is able to release its attachment, and move across (or through) it (i.e. sedentary) (e.g. Actinia).Mobile17 July 2015 14:08:32
TentaclesTentaclesA slender, flexible limb or appendage in an animal, especially around the mouth of an invertebrate, used for grasping or moving about, or bearing sense organs (OED).FeedingApparatus28 May 2015 11:48:46
TerritorialTerritorialIndependent but maintains a defined territorySolitary20 May 2015 16:19:08
TrapezoidTrapezoid/Trapeziuma convex quadrilateral with at least one pair of parallel sides is referred to as a trapezoid in American and Canadian English but as a trapezium in EnglishBodyShape10 November 2014 10:09:54
TrapsTrapsAn organism that uses traps such as sticky threads or webbing (e.g. spiders)Ambusher28 May 2015 10:00:54
TruncatedConeTruncated coneCone with flattended top (Olenina et al., 2006)BodyShape14 May 2015 11:24:43
TubicolousTube dwelling (tubicolous)An organism that lives in a tube of its own construction (e.g. mucus, bound sand grains, Calcium carbonate etc).HabitatModification29 July 2015 11:58:35
TurbinateTurbinateWhorled (Brusca, 1980).BodyShape10 November 2014 10:11:16
TurfTurfThe lowest stratum of erect branching or filiform species.Erect7 November 2014 16:54:26
UnderwaterSeizingUnderwater seizingSeizing15 July 2015 16:16:11
UnderwaterSwimmingUnderwater swimmingSwimming15 July 2015 16:18:10
UnitaryUnitaryOrganisms that grow by a determinate pathway of development of a tightly canalized adult form, e.g. all arthropods and vertebrates (from Begon et al., 2005).Growth Form14 May 2015 10:10:04
UpwardsConveyorUpward conveyorOrganisms that live vertically in the sediment, typically head-down at depth in the sediment, and that transport particles from depth to the sediment surface (adapted from Kristensen et al., 2012).SedimentReworking28 May 2015 08:52:33
VariableVariablemixed and variable materialNonSolidParticlesComp23 February 2017 14:06:59
VentralBuccalOrganVentral buccal organvariable set of folds, musculature and glands, present on the ventral side of many polychaetes, is usually referred to as a ventral proboscis and is the most common form in Polychaetes. The ventral proboscis may be a simple eversible muscular pad, the outer end of these pharynges may be frilled and densely ciliated. Other species have the lateral walls of the proboscis folded and broadly connected ventrally to a deep buccal organ, others have a ventral proboscis also present.EversiblePharynx28 May 2015 13:34:38
VentralMuscularProboscisVentral muscular proboscisThe ventral and lateral walls of the buccal region are muscular and the lining is sclerotized into a varying number of eversible jaw pieces. The jaws are separated into a pair of ventral mandibles and two or more pairs of lateral maxillae.EversiblePharynx28 May 2015 13:32:47
VermiformVermiformWorm-likeBodyShape7 November 2014 17:25:46
VermiformAnnulatedVermiform annulatedWorm like but lacking true segments although annuli may be present, e.g. roundworms (Nematoda) and ribbon worms (Nemertea).Vermiform15 July 2015 16:18:40
VermiformSegmentedVermiform segmentedWorm-like with the body divided into semi-independent, serially repeated units (Barnes et al., 1993) e.g. Annelida.Vermiform15 July 2015 16:18:59
VermiformUnsegmentedVermiform UnsegmentedWorm-like where the external surface is divided into a chain of rings or 'annuli' by furrows giving the appearance of segments (Barnes et al., 1993).Vermiform14 May 2015 11:50:47
WadinginShallowWaterWading in shallow waterSearcherForager15 July 2015 16:19:49
WhiplikeWhiplikeIn the form of a whip.BodyShape10 November 2014 10:11:52

Species_Importance_To_Society

Species Importance To Society 
wikipagenameLabelDefinitionIs trait ofModification date
"Modification date" is a predefined property that corresponds to the date of the last modification of a subject and is provided by Semantic MediaWiki.
AbsentAbsentSpecies that were reported at some time to be present but were not recorded subsequently are reported to be ‘Absent’.Occurrence6 May 2015 11:25:24
AbundanceAbundanceAbundance and population trends of species populations have been recorded where this information was available.Introduced Species Catalog6 May 2015 12:07:34
Adverse habitat modificationAdverse habitat modificationWhere the species physically alters the nature of the strata/habitat.Impact6 May 2015 11:26:11
AlienAlienSpecies introduced by man into places out of their natural range of distribution.Origin15 September 2015 14:55:39
Alters bio-geochemical/hydrologic cyclesAlters bio-geochemical/hydrologic cyclesWhere the species alters the nature of chemical or water cycles.Impact6 May 2015 11:26:46
Alters trophic interactionsAlters trophic interactionsWhere the species alters food web dynamics.Impact6 May 2015 11:27:40
Aquaculture: accidentalAquaculture: accidentalAlien and potentially invasive species that have accidentally escaped from containment/ aquaculture facility into the wild.Pathways/vector6 May 2015 11:28:28
Aquaculture: deliberateTraits:Pathways/vectorAlien and potentially invasive species that have been intentionally introduced for aquaculture.Pathways/vector6 May 2015 12:02:20
Aquatic transportAquatic transportWhere the species alters boat traffic or impedes ability of boats to navigate waterways.Impact6 May 2015 11:28:50
Bio-control: accidental translocation with deliberate bio-control releaseBio-control: accidental translocation with deliberate bio-control releaseWhere an introduction of a bio-control agent results in an unintentional introduction of an invasive species (which is carried directly on the bio-control agent itself or along with habitat material associated with the bio-control agent).Pathways/vector6 May 2015 11:29:12
Bio-control: deliberate translocation as a bio-control agentBio-control: deliberate translocation as a bio-control agentWhere a species (i.e. a bio-control agent) introduced to control a pest, weed or invasive species becomes a problem itself.Pathways/vector6 May 2015 11:29:27
Border InterceptBorder InterceptSpecies that have been intercepted at borders as a result of detection procedures.Occurrence6 May 2015 11:29:45
CITESCITESCITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between governments. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. https://www.cites.org/Species Importance To Society22 March 2016 09:29:48
Canals: natural range expansion through man-made canalsCanals: natural range expansion through man-made canalsWhere a canal, by joining two bodies of water which were not originally naturally joined, becomes a conduit for invasive species migration to a new area/region.Pathways/vector6 May 2015 11:30:00
CommonCommonA species with is abundant or present at moderate or relatively moderate densities.Abundance6 May 2015 11:31:01
Common to dominantCommon to dominantA species which is found in relatively moderate to high densities (accounts for non-discrete nature of abundance terms/parameters described here).Abundance6 May 2015 11:31:25
Consumes native species (predator or herbivore)Consumes native species (predator or herbivore)Where the species preys on native fauna or grazes on native flora.Impact6 May 2015 11:31:45
Damage to marine structures or archaeologyDamage to marine structures or archaeologyWhere the species degrades marine infrastructures or archaeological sites.Impact6 May 2015 11:32:08
Debris: transport of species on human generated debrisDebris: transport of species on human generated debrisWhere floating rafts of man-made materials become vectors for an invasive species.Pathways/vector6 May 2015 11:32:26
Detected in invasion pathwayDetected in invasion pathwaySpecies detected in invasion pathways for example in ballast water, or as a hull-fouling organism.Occurrence6 May 2015 11:32:46
Detected in the wildDetected in the wildSpecies that have been recorded as present in the wild with no further information.Occurrence6 May 2015 11:33:20
DominantDominantA species which is very abundant or present at high densities or relatively high densities.Abundance6 May 2015 11:38:57
EradicatedEradicatedSpecies that have been subject to an eradication event and have been confirmed as eradicated.Occurrence6 May 2015 11:39:14
Eradication unconfirmedEradication unconfirmedSpecies that have been subject to an eradication event but have not been confirmed as eradicated.Occurrence6 May 2015 11:40:07
EstablishedEstablishedSpecies that have become established in their introduced range.Occurrence6 May 2015 11:40:28
Established and expandingEstablished and expandingSpecies that have become established in their introduced range and are known to be increasing in abundance and expanding their range.Occurrence6 May 2015 11:40:52
Established and stableEstablished and stableSpecies that have become established in their introduced range but are not known to be spreading aggressively.Occurrence6 May 2015 11:41:10
ExtirpatedExtirpatedSpecies that were present but have been declared extinct.Occurrence6 May 2015 11:41:37
FAOASFISSpeciesForFisheryStatisticsPurposesFAO-ASFIS: Species for Fishery Statistics PurposesThe FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Statistics and Information Service (FIPS) collates world capture and aquaculture production statistics at either the species, genus, family or higher taxonomic levels in 2 189 statistical categories (2013 data) referred to as species items. ASFIS list of species includes 12 600 species items selected according to their interest or relation to fisheries and aquaculture. For each species item stored in a record, codes (ISSCAAP group, taxonomic and 3-alpha) and taxonomic information (scientific name, author(s), family, and higher taxonomic classification) are provided. An English name is available for most of the records, and about one third of them have also a French and Spanish name. Information is also provided about the availability of fishery production statistics on the species item in the FAO databases. http://www.fao.org/fishery/collection/asfis/enSpecies Importance To Society15 April 2016 12:03:39
Fisheries: accidental as baitFisheries: accidental as baitThis is where an invasive species is used as a bait resulting in its introduction into a new area/region.Pathways/vector6 May 2015 11:42:11
Fisheries: accidental with deliberate translocations of fish or shellfishFisheries: accidental with deliberate translocations of fish or shellfishWhere in the process of stocking a fishery an associated invasive species is unintentionally introduced into a new area/region.Pathways/vector6 May 2015 11:43:04
Fisheries: accidental with fishery products, packing or substrateFisheries: accidental with fishery products, packing or substrateWhere an invasive species is unintentionally introduced into a new area/region as a result of the movement of fishery related products or materials (ie: not the direct movement of fisheries stock).Pathways/vector6 May 2015 11:43:20
Fisheries: deliberate translocations of fish or shellfish to establish or support fisheryFisheries: deliberate translocations of fish or shellfish to establish or support fisheryWhere an invasive species is intentionally introduced into a new area/region for the purpose of stocking/replenishing/establishing a fishery industry based on the invasive species.Pathways/vector6 May 2015 11:43:41
FluctuatingFluctuatingA species which exhibits fluctuating densities (either undefined in the literature or otherwise not mentioned in the abundance terms/parameters described here).Abundance6 May 2015 11:43:59
Genetic impacts: hybridisation and introgressionGenetic impacts: hybridisation and introgressionWhere the species degrades native genetic resources (by hybridizing with native fauna/flora).Impact6 May 2015 11:44:13
HabitatsDirectiveHabitats DirectiveThe Habitats Directive (Council Directive 92/43/EEC) ensures the conservation of a wide range of rare, threatened or endemic animal and plant species. Some 200 rare and characteristic habitat types are also targeted for conservation in their own right. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/legislation/habitatsdirective/index_en.htmSpecies Importance To Society15 April 2016 12:01:17
Human healthHuman healthWhere the species impacts human health.Impact6 May 2015 11:44:27
IUCNRedListIUCN Red ListProvides taxonomic, conservation status, and distribution information on taxa that are facing a high risk of global extinction. http://www.iucnredlist.org/Species Importance To Society15 April 2016 12:01:34
ImpactImpactInformation on the impact of introduced and invasive marine species has been recorded. These include impacts on native species, their habitats and ecosystems, human health and activity, transmission of diseases, etc. Descriptive terms of impacts were standardized and listed in a look-up table. These terms have been adapted from Hayes (2005).Introduced Species Catalog6 May 2015 12:08:10
In captivity/cultivatedIn captivity/cultivatedSpecies that have been introduced and maintained in captivity or cultivated for example those species that are farmed in aquaculture or mariculture facilities.Occurrence6 May 2015 11:44:43
Individual release: accidental release by individualsIndividual release: accidental release by individualsThis describes any situation in which an invasive species is "accidentally" set free in the wild from aquaria sources leading to its introduction into a new area/region.Pathways/vector6 May 2015 11:45:33
Individual release: deliberate release by individualsIndividual release: deliberate release by individualsThis describes any situation in which an invasive species is intentionally planted or set free in the wild leading to its introduction into a new area/region.Pathways/vector6 May 2015 11:45:52
Induces novel behavioural or eco-physiological responsesInduces novel behavioural or eco-physiological responsesWhere the species affects the behaviour of native species.Impact6 May 2015 11:46:06
Introduced Species CatalogIntroduced Species CatalogTerms and definitions used in the World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRIMS).Species Importance To Society15 September 2015 15:10:25
Introduced country and/or sea areaIntroduced country and/or sea areaCountry or sea area that is recorded as the known introduced range of the species.Location Type2 June 2015 17:07:54
Introduction unverifiedIntroduction unverifiedSpecies whose presence is uncertain, maybe reported as present anecdotally but not confirmed.Occurrence15 September 2015 15:02:26
InvasiveInvasiveSpecies that are known to be invasive- those species in whose cases evidence of impact has been recorded or which is spreading aggressively.Invasiveness6 May 2015 11:46:43
InvasivenessInvasivenessTerms used to describe 'Invasiveness' of species.Introduced Species Catalog6 May 2015 13:35:12
Invasiveness Not specifiedInvasiveness Not specifiedA species whose 'invasiveness' has not been specified in its introduced range. The species is known to be present and has been reported but there is no comment on its invasiveness.Invasiveness6 May 2015 11:46:58
Invasiveness UncertainInvasiveness UncertainSpecies whose invasiveness is uncertain.Invasiveness6 May 2015 11:47:17
Locally commonLocally commonA species which is observed to have a patchy distribution in terms of being common only at some locations.Abundance6 May 2015 11:47:36
Location TypeLocation TypeThree location types have been recorded to describe the native range and known introduced range of the speciesIntroduced Species Catalog6 May 2015 12:09:20
Loss of aquaculture/commercial/recreational harvest or gainLoss of aquaculture/commercial/recreational harvest or gainWhere the species reduces aquaculture harvest or commercial/recreational gain.Impact6 May 2015 11:47:51
Loss of public/tourist amenityLoss of public/tourist amenityWhere the species degrades amenities associated with public/tourist sites.Impact6 May 2015 11:48:39
MSFDIndicatorsMSFD IndicatorsSpecies that comprise indicators or components of indicators for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (http://ec.europa.eu/environment/marine/eu-coast-and-marine-policy/marine-strategy-framework-directive/index_en.htm), with emphasis on Descriptors 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6.Species Importance To Society15 April 2016 12:01:48
Management recordedManagement recordedSpecies for which some management action including prevention has been recorded in its introduced range.Invasiveness6 May 2015 11:48:57
MonocultureMonocultureA species which exists to the exclusion of all other species including dense mats or in 100% of survey counts.Abundance6 May 2015 11:49:10
NativeNativeSpecies that is native to the country or sea area.Origin15 September 2015 14:55:31
Native - EndemicNative - EndemicSpecies that is native and endemic to a country or sea area i.e. a species that is unique to a location or habitat.Origin15 September 2015 14:55:46
Native - Non-endemicNative - Non-endemicSpecies that is native to an area but is not endemic to it i.e. a species that has a wide native range.Origin15 September 2015 14:55:52
Native country and/or native sea areaNative country and/or native sea areaCountry or sea area which is the native range of the species.Location Type2 June 2015 17:08:28
Natural dispersalNatural dispersalWhere an invasive species migrates from a known introduced location to a new area/region using a natural mode/mechanism of dispersal; as the original location is part of its introduced range this pathway is included here.Pathways/vector6 May 2015 11:50:33
Not invasiveNot invasiveSpecies that has not demonstrated any invasive traits in its introduced range.Invasiveness6 May 2015 11:50:49
OSPARListOfThreatenedAndOrDecliningSpeciesAndHabitatsOSPAR List of Threatened and/or Declining Species and HabitatsThe OSPAR Biological Diversity and Ecosystems Strategy sets out that the OSPAR Commission will assess which species and habitats need to be protected. This OSPAR List of Threatened and/or Declining Species and Habitats has been developed to fulfil this commitment. It is based upon nominations by Contracting Parties and observers to the Commission of species and habitats that they consider to be priorities for protection. http://www.ospar.org/work-areas/bdc/species-habitats/list-of-threatened-declining-species-habitatsSpecies Importance To Society15 April 2016 12:02:17
OccurrenceOccurrenceTerms used to describe 'Occurrence' of species.Introduced Species Catalog6 May 2015 13:37:34
Occurrence Not specifiedOccurrence Not specifiedSpecies which may be listed as alien or introduced but whose occurrence has not been specified.Occurrence6 May 2015 11:51:07
Of concernOf concernSpecies that are demonstrating aggressive spread and there is concern about its spread OR species where some concern has been recorded- this may be due to known records of its invasiveness and impacts in other areas of their known introduced range.Invasiveness6 May 2015 11:53:03
OriginOriginTerms used to describe the 'Origin' of species.Introduced Species Catalog15 September 2015 14:53:03
Origin uncertainOrigin uncertainSpecies whose biological status is uncertain i.e. it is uncertain if the species is native or alien to the location.Origin15 September 2015 14:52:27
Origin unknownOrigin unknownSpecies whose origins cannot be verified OR a species whose origin has not been specified in the source information.Origin15 September 2015 14:52:11
Other impact - undefined or uncertainOther impact - undefined or uncertainWhere the species has a known but undefined or uncertain impact.Impact6 May 2015 11:53:23
Outcompetes native species for resources and/or spaceOutcompetes native species for resources and/or spaceWhere the species dominates or outcompetes native species for resources and/or space.Impact6 May 2015 11:53:39
Pathogen/parasite or carrier of a pathogen/parasitePathogen/parasite or carrier of a pathogen/parasiteWhere the species is a pathogen/parasite of native species or carrier of a pathogen/parasite which infects/parasitizes native species.Impact6 May 2015 11:54:00
Pathway/vector OtherPathway/vector OtherIn cases where pathway/vector is not specified/ cases of novel pathways/vectors.Pathways/vector6 May 2015 11:54:15
Pathway/vector UnknownPathway/vector UnknownUnknown mechanisms of introduction were represented by a blank cell.Pathways/vector6 May 2015 11:54:36
Pathways/vectorPathways/vectorOne of the most important types of information in the practical approach to prevention and management of biological invasions is the identity of the pathways of introduction and details of vectors. These are necessary for the prevention of introduction of potentially invasive species and also for the containment of further spread of established invasions. Information on pathways and vectors of introduction of alien species has been recorded for the listed species where information was available. Descriptive terms describing pathways and vectors were standardized and listed as a look-up table. These terms have been adapted from Hayes (2005).Introduced Species Catalog6 May 2015 12:09:57
Plant introductions: accidental with deliberate plant translocationsPlant introductions: accidental with deliberate plant translocationsThis refers to invasive plant species which are unintentionally introduced into a new area/region carried on or with the habitat material of some intentionally planted flora.Pathways/vector6 May 2015 11:54:51
Plant introductions: deliberate translocation of plant speciesPlant introductions: deliberate translocation of plant speciesThis refers to plant species which are planted intentionally for some purpose resulting in the introduction of an invasive plant into a new area/region (e.g. for erosion control).Pathways/vector6 May 2015 11:55:50
Present/controlledPresent/controlledSpecies that are known to be present in their introduced range and are subject to some control option.Occurrence6 May 2015 11:56:06
RareRareA species which is present at low or relatively low densities; used to describe single occurrences of the species where appropriate.Abundance6 May 2015 11:56:55
Rare to commonRare to commonA species which is found in relatively low to moderate densities (accounts for non-discrete nature of abundance terms/parameters described here).Abundance6 May 2015 11:57:13
Rare to dominantRare to dominantA species which is fluctuates between relatively low to high densities (accounts for such phenomena as population explosions).Abundance6 May 2015 11:57:37
Recorded in errorRecorded in errorSpecies that have reported or recorded in error.Occurrence6 May 2015 11:57:51
Recreational equipment: accidental with recreational equipmentRecreational equipment: accidental with recreational equipmentWhere the movement of recreational equipment by humans results in the introduction of an invasive species into a new area/region.Pathways/vector6 May 2015 11:58:05
ReportedReportedSpecies that are 'reported' to be present but with no further information.Occurrence6 May 2015 11:59:04
Scientific research: accidental release with research activitiesScientific research: accidental release with research activitiesWhere research activities result in the unintentional release of an invasive species into a new area/region.Pathways/vector6 May 2015 11:59:18
Scientific research: deliberate release with research activitiesScientific research: deliberate release with research activitiesWhere research activities result in the intentional release of an invasive species into a new area/region.Pathways/vector6 May 2015 11:59:33
Seaplanes: accidental as attached or free-living fouling organismsSeaplanes: accidental as attached or free-living fouling organismsThis refers to invasive species which exist as sessile or motile organisms on the surface of a seaplane.Pathways/vector6 May 2015 11:59:49
Ships: accidental as attached or free-living fouling organismsShips: accidental as attached or free-living fouling organismsThis refers to invasive species which exist as sessile or motile organisms on the hull of a ship.Pathways/vector6 May 2015 12:00:05
Ships: accidental associated with cargoShips: accidental associated with cargoThis refers to invasive species which are associated with internal ship cargo.Pathways/vector6 May 2015 12:00:19
Ships: accidental with ballast water, sea water systems, live wells or other deck basinsShips: accidental with ballast water, sea water systems, live wells or other deck basinsThis refers to invasive species which exist in various life stages in ballast of a fluid nature.Pathways/vector6 May 2015 12:00:36
Ships: accidental with solid ballastShips: accidental with solid ballastThis refers to invasive species which exist in various life stages in ballast of a solid nature.Pathways/vector6 May 2015 12:01:18
Ships: generalShips: generalThis accounts for an invasive species which has been vectored by a ship but the exact mechanism of action (ie: ballast, hull or cargo) has been unidentified in the literature.Pathways/vector6 May 2015 12:01:34
Sometimes presentSometimes presentSpecies that are reported as present but only 'sometimes'.Occurrence6 May 2015 12:01:48
Source country and/or sea areaSource country and/or sea areaCountry or sea area which is the known source area of the introduced species or population. The source area could be the native range of the species or a known introduced range.Location Type2 June 2015 17:09:37
Species Importance To SocietySpecies' Importance to SocietyMarine species traits6 May 2015 12:12:27
Water abstraction or nuisance foulingWater abstraction or nuisance foulingWhere the species alters water levels or causes nuisance fouling on boats/water structures.Impact6 May 2015 12:02:39

references

wikipagenameReference
AlternationOfGenerationsLincoln, R., Boxshall, G. & Clark, P., 1998. A dictionary of ecology, evolution and systematics (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University of Press.
AmorphousCaCO3Neuendorf, K. K. E.; Mehl, J. P.; Jackson, J. A. (2005) Glossary of Geology (Fifth Edition). Alexandria, Virginia, USA; American Geological Institute.
AmphiblastulaRuppert, E.E. & Barnes, R.D., 1994. Invertebrate zoology (6th ed.). Fort Worth, USA: Saunders College Publishing.
AnisogamousLincoln, R., Boxshall, G. & Clark, P., 1998. A dictionary of ecology, evolution and systematics (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University of Press.
Bold, H.C., 1977. The Plant Kingdom (4th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.
ApomicticParthenogenesisBarnes, R.S.K., Calow, P. & Olive P.J.W., 1993. The invertebrates: a new synthesis. Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd.
AragoniteLawrence, E. (ed.) (2005) Henderson's dictionary of Biology (13th edition). London, United Kingdom: Pearson Education Limited.
ArrhenotokyLincoln, R., Boxshall, G. & Clark, P., 1998. A dictionary of ecology, evolution and systematics (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University of Press.
AscidianTadpoleStachowitsch, M., 1992. The invertebrates: an illustrated glossary. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
AsexualReproductionLincoln, R., Boxshall, G. & Clark, P., 1998. A dictionary of ecology, evolution and systematics (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University of Press.
Barnes R.S.K., Calow P., Olive P.J.W., Golding, D.W, and Spicer, J.I., 2006. The invertebrates: a new synthesis, Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd.
AuriculariaStachowitsch, M., 1992. The invertebrates: an illustrated glossary. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
AutomicticParthenogenesisLincoln, R., Boxshall, G. & Clark, P., 1998. A dictionary of ecology, evolution and systematics (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University of Press.
BiogenicReefHiscock, K. (ed.), 1996. Marine Nature Conservation Review: rationale and methods. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee. [Coasts and seas of the United Kingdom. MNCR series.]
BipinnariaRuppert, E.E. & Barnes, R.D., 1994. Invertebrate zoology (6th ed.). Fort Worth, USA: Saunders College Publishing.
Stachowitsch, M., 1992. The invertebrates: an illustrated glossary. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
BivoltineBarnes R.S.K., Calow P., Olive P.J.W., Golding, D.W, and Spicer, J.I. 2006. The invertebrates: a new synthesis, Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd.
BrachioloariaRuppert, E.E. & Barnes, R.D., 1994. Invertebrate zoology (6th ed.). Fort Worth, USA: Saunders College Publishing.
Stachowitsch, M., 1992. The invertebrates: an illustrated glossary. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
BuddingBarnes, R.S.K., Calow, P. & Olive P.J.W., 1993. The invertebrates: a new synthesis. Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd.
CalciteLawrence, E. (ed.) (2005) Henderson's dictionary of Biology (13th edition). London, United Kingdom: Pearson Education Limited.
CaveHiscock, K. (ed.), 1996. Marine Nature Conservation Review: rationale and methods. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee. [Coasts and seas of the United Kingdom. MNCR series.]
ChitinousLawrence, E. (ed.) (2005) Henderson's dictionary of Biology (13th edition). London, United Kingdom: Pearson Education Limited.
CoarseCleanSandHiscock, K. (ed.), 1996. Marine Nature Conservation Review: rationale and methods. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee. [Coasts and seas of the United Kingdom. MNCR series.]
CoarseSedimentsLong D., (2006). BGS detailed explanation of seabed sediment modified Folk classification. http://www.emodnet-seabedhabitats.eu/PDF/BGS%20detailed%20explanation%20of%20seabed%20sediment%20modified%20folk%20classification.pdf
CobblesHiscock, K, Jackson, A. and Lear, D. (1999). Assessing seabed species and ecosystem sensitivities: existing approaches and development, October 1999 edition.Report to the Department of Environment, Transport and the Regions from the Marine Life Information Network (MarLIN).Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, Plymouth.
ConariaStachowitsch, M., 1992. The invertebrates: an illustrated glossary. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
CopepodidStachowitsch, M., 1992. The invertebrates: an illustrated glossary. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
CrevicesFissuresHiscock, K. (ed.), 1996. Marine Nature Conservation Review: rationale and methods. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee. [Coasts and seas of the United Kingdom. MNCR series.]
CydippidRuppert, E.E. & Barnes, R.D., 1994. Invertebrate zoology (6th ed.). Fort Worth, USA: Saunders College Publishing.
Stachowitsch, M., 1992. The invertebrates: an illustrated glossary. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
CyphonautesRuppert, E.E. & Barnes, R.D., 1994. Invertebrate zoology (6th ed.). Fort Worth, USA: Saunders College Publishing.
CyprisStachowitsch, M., 1992. The invertebrates: an illustrated glossary. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
DepositFeederLincoln, R., Boxshall, G. & Clark, P., 1998. A dictionary of ecology, evolution and systematics (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University of Press.
DiplonticLincoln, R., Boxshall, G. & Clark, P., 1998. A dictionary of ecology, evolution and systematics (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University of Press.
DoliolariaRuppert, E.E. & Barnes, R.D., 1994. Invertebrate zoology (6th ed.). Fort Worth, USA: Saunders College Publishing.
Stachowitsch, M., 1992. The invertebrates: an illustrated glossary. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
EchinopluteusStachowitsch, M., 1992. The invertebrates: an illustrated glossary. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Ruppert, E.E. & Barnes, R.D., 1994. Invertebrate zoology (6th ed.). Fort Worth, USA: Saunders College Publishing.
EphyraStachowitsch, M., 1992. The invertebrates: an illustrated glossary. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
ExoskeletonLawrence, E. (ed.) (2005) Henderson's dictionary of Biology (13th edition). London, United Kingdom: Pearson Education Limited.
FineCleanSandHiscock, K. (ed.), 1996. Marine Nature Conservation Review: rationale and methods. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee. [Coasts and seas of the United Kingdom. MNCR series.]
FissionBarnes, R.S.K., Calow, P. & Olive P.J.W., 1993. The invertebrates: a new synthesis. Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd.
ForkLengthhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fish_measurement
http://www.fishbase.org/Glossary/Glossary.php?q=fork+length&language=english&sc=is
GenerationTimeLincoln, R., Boxshall, G. & Clark, P., 1998. A dictionary of ecology, evolution and systematics (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University of Press.
GlochidiumStachowitsch, M., 1992. The invertebrates: an illustrated glossary. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
GoettesLarvaRuppert, E.E. & Barnes, R.D., 1994. Invertebrate zoology (6th ed.). Fort Worth, USA: Saunders College Publishing.
GonochoristicBarnes, R.S.K., Calow, P. & Olive P.J.W., 1993. The invertebrates: a new synthesis. Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd.
GravelShingleLong D. (2006). BGS detailed explanation of seabed sediment modified Folk classification. http://www.emodnet-seabedhabitats.eu/PDF/BGS%20detailed%20explanation%20of%20seabed%20sediment%20modified%20folk%20classification.pdf
Hiscock, K. (ed.), 1996. Marine Nature Conservation Review: rationale and methods. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee. [Coasts and seas of the United Kingdom. MNCR series.]
GravellyMudLong D., (2006). BGS detailed explanation of seabed sediment modified Folk classification. http://www.emodnet-seabedhabitats.eu/PDF/BGS%20detailed%20explanation%20of%20seabed%20sediment%20modified%20folk%20classification.pdf
GravellyMuddySandLong D., (2006). BGS detailed explanation of seabed sediment modified Folk classification. http://www.emodnet-seabedhabitats.eu/PDF/BGS%20detailed%20explanation%20of%20seabed%20sediment%20modified%20folk%20classification.pdf
GravellySandLong D. (2006). BGS detailed explanation of seabed sediment modified Folk classification. http://www.emodnet-seabedhabitats.eu/PDF/BGS%20detailed%20explanation%20of%20seabed%20sediment%20modified%20folk%20classification.pdf
HaplonticLincoln, R., Boxshall, G. & Clark, P., 1998. A dictionary of ecology, evolution and systematics (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University of Press.
HighMagnesiumCalciteSmith, A. M., Key Jr., M.M, Gordon P.D. (2006) Skeletal mineralogy of bryozoans: Taxonomic and temporal patters. Earth-Science Reviews 78:287-306.
InstarLincoln, R., Boxshall, G. & Clark, P., 1998. A dictionary of ecology, evolution and systematics (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University of Press.
IsogamousLincoln, R., Boxshall, G. & Clark, P., 1998. A dictionary of ecology, evolution and systematics (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University of Press.
IteroparousLincoln, R., Boxshall, G. & Clark, P., 1998. A dictionary of ecology, evolution and systematics (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University of Press.
KeratinousLawrence, E. (ed.) (2005) Henderson's dictionary of Biology (13th edition). London, United Kingdom: Pearson Education Limited.
LarvaBarnes R.S.K., Calow P., Olive P.J.W., Golding, D.W, and Spicer, J.I. 2006. The invertebrates: a new synthesis, Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd.
Ruppert, E.E. & Barnes, R.D., 1994. Invertebrate zoology (6th ed.). Fort Worth, USA: Saunders College Publishing.
LecithotrophicBarnes, R.S.K., Calow, P. & Olive P.J.W., 1993. The invertebrates: a new synthesis. Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd.
LifeCycleLincoln, R., Boxshall, G. & Clark, P., 1998. A dictionary of ecology, evolution and systematics (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University of Press.
MediumCleanSandHiscock, K. (ed.), 1996. Marine Nature Conservation Review: rationale and methods. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee. [Coasts and seas of the United Kingdom. MNCR series.]
MegalopaStachowitsch, M., 1992. The invertebrates: an illustrated glossary. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
MetanaupliusStachowitsch, M., 1992. The invertebrates: an illustrated glossary. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
MitrariaStachowitsch, M., 1992. The invertebrates: an illustrated glossary. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
MixedLong D.,2006. BGS detailed explanation of seabed sediment modified Folk classification. http://www.emodnet-seabedhabitats.eu/PDF/BGS%20detailed%20explanation%20of%20seabed%20sediment%20modified%20folk%20classification.pdf
Folk R.L. (1954). The distinction between grain size and mineral composition in sedimentary-rock nomenclature. The Journal of Geology, 344-359.
MonoeciousLincoln, R., Boxshall, G. & Clark, P., 1998. A dictionary of ecology, evolution and systematics (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University of Press.
MudLong D., (2006). BGS detailed explanation of seabed sediment modified Folk classification. http://www.emodnet-seabedhabitats.eu/PDF/BGS%20detailed%20explanation%20of%20seabed%20sediment%20modified%20folk%20classification.pdf
Hiscock, K. (ed.), 1996. Marine Nature Conservation Review: rationale and methods. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee. [Coasts and seas of the United Kingdom. MNCR series.]
MudSandyMudLong D., (2006). BGS detailed explanation of seabed sediment modified Folk classification. http://www.emodnet-seabedhabitats.eu/PDF/BGS%20detailed%20explanation%20of%20seabed%20sediment%20modified%20folk%20classification.pdf
MuddyGravelLong D., 2006. BGS detailed explanation of seabed sediment modified Folk classification. http://www.emodnet-seabedhabitats.eu/PDF/BGS%20detailed%20explanation%20of%20seabed%20sediment%20modified%20folk%20classification.pdf
MuddySandLong D., (2006). BGS detailed explanation of seabed sediment modified Folk classification. http://www.emodnet-seabedhabitats.eu/PDF/BGS%20detailed%20explanation%20of%20seabed%20sediment%20modified%20folk%20classification.pdf
MuddySandyGravelLong D., 2006. BGS detailed explanation of seabed sediment modified Folk classification. http://www.emodnet-seabedhabitats.eu/PDF/BGS%20detailed%20explanation%20of%20seabed%20sediment%20modified%20folk%20classification.pdf
MullersLarvaRuppert, E.E. & Barnes, R.D., 1994. Invertebrate zoology (6th ed.). Fort Worth, USA: Saunders College Publishing.
MultivoltineBarnes R.S.K., Calow P., Olive P.J.W., Golding, D.W, and Spicer, J.I. 2006. The invertebrates: a new synthesis, Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd.
NaupliusStachowitsch, M., 1992. The invertebrates: an illustrated glossary. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
NectochaetaStachowitsch, M., 1992. The invertebrates: an illustrated glossary. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
NektonLincoln, R., Boxshall, G. & Clark, P., 1998. A dictionary of ecology, evolution and systematics (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University of Press.
OogamousLincoln, R., Boxshall, G. & Clark, P., 1998. A dictionary of ecology, evolution and systematics (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University of Press.
OphiopluteusStachowitsch, M., 1992. The invertebrates: an illustrated glossary. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
OrganicLawrence, E. (ed.) (2005) Henderson's dictionary of Biology (13th edition). London, United Kingdom: Pearson Education Limited.
OvoviviparousLincoln, R., Boxshall, G. & Clark, P., 1998. A dictionary of ecology, evolution and systematics (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University of Press.
ParenchymellaRuppert, E.E. & Barnes, R.D., 1994. Invertebrate zoology (6th ed.). Fort Worth, USA: Saunders College Publishing.
PebblesHiscock, K, Jackson, A. and Lear, D. (1999). Assessing seabed species and ecosystem sensitivities: existing approaches and development, October 1999 edition.Report to the Department of Environment, Transport and the Regions from the Marine Life Information Network (MarLIN). Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, Plymouth.
PelagosphaeraRuppert, E.E. & Barnes, R.D., 1994. Invertebrate zoology (6th ed.). Fort Worth, USA: Saunders College Publishing.
PermanentHermaphroditeBarnes, R.S.K., Calow, P. & Olive P.J.W., 1993. The invertebrates: a new synthesis. Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd.
PilidiumRuppert, E.E. & Barnes, R.D., 1994. Invertebrate zoology (6th ed.). Fort Worth, USA: Saunders College Publishing.
Stachowitsch, M., 1992. The invertebrates: an illustrated glossary. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
PlanktonLincoln, R., Boxshall, G. & Clark, P., 1998. A dictionary of ecology, evolution and systematics (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University of Press.
PlanktotrophicBarnes, R.S.K., Calow, P. & Olive P.J.W., 1993. The invertebrates: a new synthesis. Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd.
PlanulaStachowitsch, M., 1992. The invertebrates: an illustrated glossary. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
ProtandrousHolmes, S., 1979. Henderson’s dictionary of biological terms. 9th ed. London: Hendersons.
ProtogynousHolmes, S., 1979. Henderson’s dictionary of biological terms. 9th ed. London: Hendersons.
ProtonymphonRuppert, E.E. & Barnes, R.D., 1994. Invertebrate zoology (6th ed.). Fort Worth, USA: Saunders College Publishing.
ProtozoeaStachowitsch, M., 1992. The invertebrates: an illustrated glossary. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
RatariaStachowitsch, M., 1992. The invertebrates: an illustrated glossary. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
RockpoolsHiscock, K. (ed.), 1996. Marine Nature Conservation Review: rationale and methods. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee. [Coasts and seas of the United Kingdom. MNCR series.]
SaltmarshLincoln, R., Boxshall, G. & Clark, P., 1998. A dictionary of ecology, evolution and systematics (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University of Press.
SandLong D. (2006). BGS detailed explanation of seabed sediment modified Folk classification. http://www.emodnet-seabedhabitats.eu/PDF/BGS%20detailed%20explanation%20of%20seabed%20sediment%20modified%20folk%20classification.pdf
Hiscock, K. (ed.), 1996. Marine Nature Conservation Review: rationale and methods. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee. [Coasts and seas of the United Kingdom. MNCR series.]
SandMuddySandLong D. (2006). BGS detailed explanation of seabed sediment modified Folk classification. http://www.emodnet-seabedhabitats.eu/PDF/BGS%20detailed%20explanation%20of%20seabed%20sediment%20modified%20folk%20classification.pdf
SandyGravelLong D. (2006). BGS detailed explanation of seabed sediment modified Folk classification. http://www.emodnet-seabedhabitats.eu/PDF/BGS%20detailed%20explanation%20of%20seabed%20sediment%20modified%20folk%20classification.pdf
{{{reference}}}
SandyMudLong D., (2006). BGS detailed explanation of seabed sediment modified Folk classification. http://www.emodnet-seabedhabitats.eu/PDF/BGS%20detailed%20explanation%20of%20seabed%20sediment%20modified%20folk%20classification.pdf
SedimentSoftHiscock, K. (ed.), 1996. Marine Nature Conservation Review: rationale and methods. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee. [Coasts and seas of the United Kingdom. MNCR series.]
Folk R.L. (1954). The distinction between grain size and mineral composition in sedimentary-rock nomenclature. The Journal of Geology, 344-359.
Long D. (2006). BGS detailed explanation of seabed sediment modified Folk classification. http://www.emodnet-seabedhabitats.eu/PDF/BGS%20detailed%20explanation%20of%20seabed%20sediment%20modified%20folk%20classification.pdf
SemelparousBarnes R.S.K., Calow P., Olive P.J.W., Golding, D.W, and Spicer, J.I. 2006. The invertebrates: a new synthesis, Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd.
Lincoln, R., Boxshall, G. & Clark, P., 1998. A dictionary of ecology, evolution and systematics (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University of Press.
SemivoltineBarnes R.S.K., Calow P., Olive P.J.W., Golding, D.W, and Spicer, J.I. 2006. The invertebrates: a new synthesis, Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd.
SequentialHermaphroditeLincoln, R., Boxshall, G. & Clark, P., 1998. A dictionary of ecology, evolution and systematics (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University of Press.
SexualReproductionBarnes R.S.K., Calow P., Olive P.J.W., Golding, D.W, and Spicer, J.I. 2006. The invertebrates: a new synthesis, Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd.
Lincoln, R., Boxshall, G. & Clark, P., 1998. A dictionary of ecology, evolution and systematics (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University of Press.
SmallBouldersHiscock, K. (ed.), 1996. Marine Nature Conservation Review: rationale and methods. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee. [Coasts and seas of the United Kingdom. MNCR series.]
SponginousLawrence, E. (ed.) (2005) Henderson's dictionary of Biology (13th edition). London, United Kingdom: Pearson Education Limited.
StandardLengthhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fish_measurement
http://www.fishbase.org/Glossary/Glossary.php?q=standard+length&sc=is
StrandlineLincoln, R., Boxshall, G. & Clark, P., 1998. A dictionary of ecology, evolution and systematics (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University of Press.
SubstratumHabitatFolk R.L. (1954). The distinction between grain size and mineral composition in sedimentary-rock nomenclature. The Journal of Geology, 344-359.
Hiscock, K. (ed.), 1996. Marine Nature Conservation Review: rationale and methods. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee. [Coasts and seas of the United Kingdom. MNCR series.]
Long D. (2006). BGS detailed explanation of seabed sediment modified Folk classification. http://www.emodnet-seabedhabitats.eu/PDF/BGS%20detailed%20explanation%20of%20seabed%20sediment%20modified%20folk%20classification.pdf
SupportingStructuresEnclosuresLawrence, E. (ed.) (2005) Henderson's dictionary of Biology (13th edition). London, United Kingdom: Pearson Education Limited.
TaxonSpecificBodySizeFishhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fish_measurement
TotalLengthhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fish_measurement
http://www.fishbase.org/Glossary/Glossary.php?q=total+length&sc=is
UnivoltineBarnes R.S.K., Calow P., Olive P.J.W., Golding, D.W, and Spicer, J.I. 2006. The invertebrates: a new synthesis, Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd.
VegetativeLincoln, R., Boxshall, G. & Clark, P., 1998. A dictionary of ecology, evolution and systematics (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University of Press.
VeligerStachowitsch, M., 1992. The invertebrates: an illustrated glossary. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
ViviparousLincoln, R., Boxshall, G. & Clark, P., 1998. A dictionary of ecology, evolution and systematics (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University of Press.
Barnes R.S.K., Calow P., Olive P.J.W., Golding, D.W, and Spicer, J.I. 2006. The invertebrates: a new synthesis, Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd.
WidthOfDischttp://www.fishbase.org/glossary/Glossary.php?q=disk+width&language=english&sc=is
ZoeaStachowitsch, M., 1992. The invertebrates: an illustrated glossary. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


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