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Definition of Littoral:
1)Growing or living near the seashore.[1].

2) The area of the shore that is occupied by marine organisms which are adapted to or need alternating exposure to air and wetting by submersion, splash or spray. On rocky shores, the upper limit is marked by the top of the Littorina /Verrucaria belt and the lower limit by the top of the laminarian zone (Lewis, 1964)[2]. It is divided into separate subzones, particularly marked on hard substrata.

This is the common definition for Littoral, other definitions can be discussed in the article


  1. Lawrence, E. (2005). Henderson’s dictionary of biology. Pearson Education Limited, 13th ed., Harlow. 748 p
  2. Lewis, J.R., 1964. The ecology of rocky shores. London: English Universities Press.