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Species that were reported at some time to be present but were not recorded subsequently are reported to be ‘Absent’.  +
Abundance and population trends of species populations have been recorded where this information was available.  +
Common in OSPAR Regions II, III, IV  +
Occupying the ocean floor from ca 4000 - 6000 m depth. Usually a more or less flat plain (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
Overlays the plains of the major ocean basins with a lower boundary of ca 6000 m.  +
Other structures such as palps, tentacles or a radiolar crown ("grooved palps"). There are forms of single pair of grooved palps nearly always attached dorsally or near the junction of the prostomium and peristomium, or multiple grooved palps sometimes forming a crown. Dorso lateral ciliated folds in the roof of the buccal cavity may be present in some polychaetes.  +
An organism that constructs reefs or raised beds of accreted materials, e.g. bound sand in ''Sabellaria'' spp.  +
Crawling larval stage of some hydoids (amend)  +
The reproductively capable (mature), fully formed, usually longest lived, stage of an animals life cycle.  +
Attached or stuck to adult but not held in specialised appendage / receptacle  +
Eggs are placed or retained within the parents burrow  +
Where the species physically alters the nature of the strata/habitat.  +
Age recorded in days, months, years.  +
An organism that constructs reefs and raised beds due to aggregation of large numbers of individuals via permanent or semi-permanent attachment e.g. mussels, oysters and ''Crepidula'' beds.  +
Constructs deep beds of calcareous algal nodules, e.g. maerl beds  +
Species introduced by man into places out of their natural range of distribution.  +
36-40 psu  +
10-<18 psu  +
3-<5 psu  +
25-<30 psu  +
The alternation of generations, in the life cycle of an organism, that exhibit different modes of reproduction; typically sexual (diploid) and asexual (haploid) phases. Also termed metagenesis (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998) (e.g. ''Daphnia'', some rotifers)  +
Where the species alters the nature of chemical or water cycles.  +
Where the species alters food web dynamics.  +
Sedentary or sessile predators, that wait for prey to come to them, and may or may not use a final pounce, traps or lures (e.g. sea anemones, large hydroids, spiders)  +
calcium carbonate that lacks a crystalline structure, or whose internal is so irregular that there is no characteristic external form. The term does not preclude the existence of any degree of order (Derived from Neuendorf et al. 2005)  +
A poriferan larva, composed of a hollow ball of cells, with one hemisphere ciliated (Ruppert & Barnes, 1994).  +
Coastal salt water habitats with no surface connection to the sea.  +
E.g. ''Ceratium'' spp.  +
Having flagellate gametes of different size, shape or behaviour (from Bold, 1977 and Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
Breeds every year but in one or more discrete periods initiated by some trigger (for example a lunar cycle).  +
Breeds every year over an extended or drawn out period.  +
Reproduction via single cells /eggs that are derived by mitosis (Barnes ''et al.'', 1993) - amictic.  +
Swimming is effected one or more pairs of appendages (legs or paddles) e.g. the pleiopods of Isopod, Amphipod or Decapod crustaceans, or the legs of amphibious vertebrates.  +
Alien and potentially invasive species that have accidentally escaped from containment/ aquaculture facility into the wild.  +
Alien and potentially invasive species that have been intentionally introduced for aquaculture.  +
Where the species alters boat traffic or impedes ability of boats to navigate waterways.  +
a crystalline form of calcium carbonate, e.g. one of the constituents of mollusc shells.  +
Having the shape or characteristics of a tree.  +
Specialist - sea urchins  +
Traits that describe specialized limbs or appendages used to catch or process food items.  +
Haploid males develop from unfertilized eggs and diploid females from fertilized eggs (adapted from Lincoln 'et al.'', 1998).  +
Jointed, arthrous (Holmes, 1979).  +
E.g. wood, metal or concrete structures.  +
A free-swimming tadpole-like larva of ascidians, characterized by a head (bearing internal organs and adhesive papilla) and tail (with notochord and neural tube) (Stachowitsch, 1992).  +
Reproduction not involving the exchange of genetic material, amictic, individuals derived form a single parent (Barnes ''et al.'', 2006); not involving the fusion of gametes (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998)  +
Attached to the sediment surface e.g. by mucilagenous sheath such as used by necklace shells, and opistobranchs  +
First free-swimming larval stage of the Holothuroidea. It is characterized by a continuous and curving flagellated band (Stachowitsch, 1992).  +
Obligate self-fertilization (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998) in which haploid eggs /gametes are produced by meiosis but diploidy is restored without fertilization.  +
Self-feeding. An organism capable of synthesizing complex organic substances from simple inorganic substrates (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
Use of a length of silk to be carried by the wind (e.g. spiders)  +
Occupying the ocean floor from ca 200 - 4000 m depth (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
Extends from ca 1000-2500 m.  +
e.g. birds / cephalopods  +
An organism that lives in large aggregations or beds (e.g. brittlestars, mussels, oysters, ''Crepidula'' etc, sea squirts)  +
Any stable hard substratum, not separated into boulders or smaller sediment units. Includes soft rock-types such as chalk, peat and clay. (Hiscock ''et al.'', 1999; MarLIN)  +
Pertaining to the sea bed, river bed or lake floor (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
A zone of open water extending ca 100 m above the surface of the sea bed at all depths below the edge of the continental shelf.  +
30-36 psu  +
5-<10 psu  +
0.5-<3 psu  +
18-<25 psu  +
Breeds less frequently than every two years.  +
Breeds every second year but in one or more discrete periods initiated by some trigger (for example a lunar cycle).  +
Breeds once every two years over an extended or drawn out period.  +
Where an introduction of a bio-control agent results in an unintentional introduction of an invasive species (which is carried directly on the bio-control agent itself or along with habitat material associated with the bio-control agent).  +
Where a species (i.e. a bio-control agent) introduced to control a pest, weed or invasive species becomes a problem itself.  +
Organisms whose activities that cause constant and random local sediment biomixing over short distances resulting in transport of sediment particles, analogous to molecular or eddy diffusion (from Kristensen ''et al.'', 2012). Includes epifaunal biodiffusers e.g. fiddler crabs; surficial biodiffusers e.g. ''Echinocardium''; and gallery biodiffusers e.g. ''Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor''.  +
Habitat features created by living things  +
An elevated structure on the seabed built by calcareous or other concretion-forming organisms, or by chemical precipitation (Hiscock, 1996); for example by ''Modiolus modiolus'' or ''Sabellaria alveolata''  +
First of the two free-swimming larval forms in the asteroids, characterized by a ciliary band and the presence of arm-like projections (Stachowitsch, 1992; Ruppert & Barnes, 1994).  +
Europe is home to more than 500 wild bird species. But at least 32 % of the EU's bird species are currently not in a good conservation status. The Birds Directive aims to protect all of the 500 wild bird species naturally occurring in the European Union.  +
194 species and sub-species are particularly threatened. Member States must designate Special Protection Areas (SPAs) for their survival and all migratory bird species.  +
82 bird species can be hunted. However, the hunting periods are limited and hunting is forbidden when birds are at their most vulnerable: during their return migration to nesting areas, reproduction and the raising of their chicks.  +
Overall, activities that directly threaten birds, such as their deliberate killing, capture or trade, or the destruction of their nests, are banned. With certain restrictions, Member States can allow some of these activities for 26 species listed here.  +
The directive provides for the sustainable management of hunting but Member States must outlaw all forms of non-selective and large scale killing of birds, especially the methods listed in this annex.  +
The directive promotes research to underpin the protection, management and use of all species of birds covered by the Directive, which are listed in this annex.  +
Mouth parts designed to grasp and macerate food before swallowing (e.g. most vertebrates)  +
Mouth parts designed to pierce outside of food or prey and feed on internal fluids or tissues  +
Characteristically a shell of two calcareous valves joined by a flexible ligament.  +
Two generations per year (Barnes ''et al.'', 2006).  +
Organisms that live in 'I' or 'J' shaped burrows open at only one end where water is drawn through or diffuses out of the sediment e.g. ''Arenicola marina'' (adapted from Kristensen ''et al.'', 2012).  +
Build up or accumulation of sediment.  +
Maerl; twig-like unattached (free-living) calcareous red algae, often a mixture of species and including species which form a spiky cover on loose small stones - 'hedgehog stones'.  +
Traits relating to the form, shape and structure of the species  +
Overall shape of the individual or colony (modular forms)  +
A measurement of the size of the organism. Note - the measurement used to express body size varies within taxonomic groups. For example, some disciplines measure diameter, others carapace length, total body length or wing span. Also body size can vary with gender and life stage.  +
Maximum recorded linear body length (in millimetres) excluding appendages.  +
Species that have been intercepted at borders as a result of detection procedures.  +
The second the two free-swimming larval forms in the asteroids, characterized by the appearance of three adhesive arms at the anterior end (Ruppert & Barnes, 1994; Stachowitsch, 1992).  +
0.5-<30 psu  +
Both gametes are expelled (spawned) from the confines of the adult body or tissues, into the external fluid medium (water/air)  +
Eggs retained by adult, usually in specialised cavity/appendage where the eggs develop to larval or juvenile stage  +
Feeding on parts of plants (e.g. shoots, leaves, twigs) or parts of other organisms (e.g. siphon nipping by fish). (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
The buccal cavity lacks obvious differentiation of the wall and it is not eversible. Some species if buccal cavity present at all, is only a transient larval structure and becomes completely occluded.  +
A form of asexual multiplication in which a new individual begins life as an outgrowth from the body of the parent. It may then separate to lead an independent existence or remain connected or otherwise associated to form a colonial organism (Barnes ''et al.'', 1993).  +
Balloon or sac-like (Prescott, 1969).  +
An organism that constructs permanent or semi-permanent burrows through physical excavation or chemical action.  +
Occupies or shares space in burrow constructed by other organisms.  +
An organism that moves through the substratum by burrowing or tunneling (e.g. earthworms, polychaetes).  +
Use of a length of byssus thread (e.g. micro-molluscs, juvenile molluscs) or mucus (e.g ''Nemertesia'' planulae) to be carried by water flow  +
CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between governments. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. Appendices I, II and III to the Convention are lists of species afforded different levels or types of protection from over-exploitation.  +
Appendix I lists species that are the most endangered among CITES-listed animals and plants (see Article II, paragraph 1 of the Convention). They are threatened with extinction and CITES prohibits international trade in specimens of these species except when the purpose of the import is not commercial (see Article III), for instance for scientific research. In these exceptional cases, trade may take place provided it is authorized by the granting of both an import permit and an export permit (or re-export certificate). Article VII of the Convention provides for a number of exemptions to this general prohibition.  +
Appendix II lists species that are not necessarily now threatened with extinction but that may become so unless trade is closely controlled. It also includes so-called "look-alike species", i.e. species whose specimens in trade look like those of species listed for conservation reasons (see Article II, paragraph 2 of the Convention). International trade in specimens of Appendix-II species may be authorized by the granting of an export permit or re-export certificate. No import permit is necessary for these species under CITES (although a permit is needed in some countries that have taken stricter measures than CITES requires). Permits or certificates should only be granted if the relevant authorities are satisfied that certain conditions are met, above all that trade will not be detrimental to the survival of the species in the wild. (See Article IV of the Convention)  +
Appendix III is a list of species included at the request of a Party that already regulates trade in the species and that needs the cooperation of other countries to prevent unsustainable or illegal exploitation (see Article II, paragraph 3, of the Convention). International trade in specimens of species listed in this Appendix is allowed only on presentation of the appropriate permits or certificates. (See Article V of the Convention)  +
An organism that constructs reefs or biogenic structures composed of the calcareous skeletons of individuals or colonies (e.g. corals)  +
Skeleton composed of calcareous spicules (sponges/echinoderms), plates, spines, bones or other structures  +
crystalline form of calcium carbonate, e. g. one of the constituents of mollusc shells and the skeletons of calcareous sponges.  +
Where a canal, by joining two bodies of water which were not originally naturally joined, becomes a conduit for invasive species migration to a new area/region.  +
Enlarged or swollen at the apex, with a ‘head’, clubbed (Prescott, 1969).  +
specialist - scaphopods  +
An organism that feeds on animal tissue/meat.  +
A hollow normally eroded in a cliff (or vertical rock) with the penetration being greater than the width of the entrance (Hiscock, 1996).  +
The surface or body part to which eggs are attached by the parent  +
specialist - chaetognaths  +
Forming chains of individuals  +
Common in OSPAR Region III  +
Common in OSPAR Regions II, III, IV  +
An organism that obtains metabolic energy from oxidation of inorganic substrates such as sulphur, nitrogen or iron (e.g. some micro-organisms) (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
composed of chitin, a long-chain polymer of N-acetylglucosamine. It is the chief polysaccharide in fungal cell walls and in the exoskeleton of arthropods (derived form Lawrence, 2005).  +
Special feeding cell of sponges  +
Swimming is effected by beating of cilia and or flagella; includes the fused cilia of Ctenophores.  +
The subzone of the rocky sublittoral below that dominated by algae (the infralittoral), and dominated by animals. No lower limit is defined, but species composition changes below about 40m to 80m depth, depending on depth of the seasonal thermocline. This subzone can be subdivided into the upper circalittoral where foliose algae are present and the lower circalittoral where they are not (see Hiscock, 1985). The term is also used by Glémarec (1973) to refer to two étages of the sediment benthos below the infralittoral: a "coastal circalittoral category with a eurythermal environment of weak seasonal amplitude (less than 10°C) varying slowly" and a "circalittoral category of the open sea with a stenothermal environment" (Hiscock, 1996).  +
Typically occurs below 50-70 metres away from the influence of wave action. Aphotic with animal communities in stable or stenothermal and stenohaline conditions. Open sea (Connor et al., 1997).  +
Latticed (Holmes, 1979).  +
e.g. Mammals  +
1) Sediment particles less than 0.004 mm in size (Wentworth, 1922). 2) A soft very fine-grained sedimentary rock composed primarily of clay-sized particles (Hiscock, 1996).  +
Number of eggs laid at one time - in organisms that may lay eggs in one or more batches.  +
1) Particle size 0.5 - 4 mm (Hiscock, 1996)  +
Sediments composed of gravel and sand; inc. gravel, gravelly sand and sandy gravel (Long, 2006)  +
64-256 mm. May be rounded or flat. Substrata that are predominantly cobbles.  +
Organisms that come together in large colonies (100 plus individuals) - often in the same area from season to season - usually for breeding purposes  +
Symbiosis (q.v.) in which one species derives benefit from a common food supply, whilst the other species is not adversely affected (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
A species with is abundant or present at moderate or relatively moderate densities.  +
A species which is found in relatively moderate to high densities (accounts for non-discrete nature of abundance terms/parameters described here).  +
Early larval stage in siphonophores, composed of a floating colony with disc-shaped float, and consists of a hollow sphere with aboral thickening (Stachowitsch, 1992).  +
Common in OSPAR Regions II, III, IV  +
Cone with a half sphere (Olenina ''et al.'', 2006).  +
Cone shaped e.g. limpet-shaped, patelliform (adapted from Stachowitsch, 1992).  +
Where the species preys on native fauna or grazes on native flora.  +
Free swimming larval stage, typically with five sub-stages, characterized by excretion through maxillary glands, and progressive increase in number of body segments and posterior appendages (see Stachowitsch, 1992).  +
Deposition of sands formed by the breakdown to the skeletons of living organisms  +
Free-swimming, lecithotrophic larva of Bryozoa  +
An organism that moves across, up or down the substratum via movements of its legs, appendages or muscles (e.g. ''Carcinus'').  +
An organism that moves slowly or 'creeps' across the surface of the substratum  +
A narrow crack in hard substratum where penetration is deeper than the width at the entrance; a crevice is <10 mm wide at the entrance, while a fissure is >10 mm (Hiscock ,1996)  +
A taxon is Critically Endangered when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the criteria A to E for Critically Endangered (see Section V), and it is therefore considered to be facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.  +
copepod / zooplankton specific??  +
Forming or resembling a crust (Thompson, 1995) that is solid or resistant to touch or pressure e.g. encrusting coralline algae or sea mats such as ''Umbonula littoralis''.  +
Forming or resembling a crust (Thompson, 1995) that yields to the touch or pressure e.g. the gelatinous colonies of ''Botryllus schlosseri'' or soft cushions of sponges such as ''Halichondria'' sp.  +
e.g bivalve molluscs  +
A mass or pillow of soft material.  +
Free-swimming spherical larva, composed of a simple gastrovascular system and short comb-rows; resembles typical adult ctenophore (see Stachowitsch, 1992, Ruppert & Barnes, 1994).  +
With straight sides and a circular section (Thompson, 1995).  +
Free-swimming bryozoan larva, the body is triangular, compressed and enclosed in a bivalve shell (see Ruppert & Barnes, 1994).  +
Final lecithotrophic larval stage, characterized by bivalved carapace, compound eyes, prehensile antennules and thoraic appendages (cirri) (see Stachowitsch, 1992).  +
Seabirds/waders?  +
Where the species degrades marine infrastructures or archaeological sites.  +
A taxon is Data Deficient when there is inadequate information to make a direct, or indirect, assessment of its risk of extinction based on its distribution and/or population status. A taxon in this category may be well studied, and its biology well known, but appropriate data on abundance and/or distribution are lacking. Data Deficient is therefore not a category of threat. Listing of taxa in this category indicates that more information is required and acknowledges the possibility that future research will show that threatened classification is appropriate. It is important to make positive use of whatever data are available. In many cases great care should be exercised in choosing between DD and a threatened status. If the range of a taxon is suspected to be relatively circumscribed, and a considerable period of time has elapsed since the last record of the taxon, threatened status may well be justified.  +
Where floating rafts of man-made materials become vectors for an invasive species.  +
Living at or near the bottom of a sea or lake but having the capacity for active swimming (from Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
Branching irregularly – similar to that of a root system (Prescott, 1969).  +
Description of an organism's relationship with other organisms  +
An organism that feeds on fragmented particulate organic matter within or on the substratum (adapted from Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
Maximum recorded depth below chart datum (expressed in metres).  +
Maximum to minimum recorded depth (expressed as metres below chart datum).  +
The depth within the substratum at which the organism is found (max recorded in metres).  +
Species detected in invasion pathways for example in ballast water, or as a hull-fouling organism.  +
Species that have been recorded as present in the wild with no further information.  +
An organism that feeds on fragmented particulate organic matter (detritus) (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
The length of a straight line passing from side to side through the centre of a body or figure, especially a circle or sphere. Note: For diameter you can specify the measurement type (minimum, maximum, average), gender (male, female) and life stage.  +
Description of dormant stage  +
Daily, pertaining to a 24 hour period.  +
Having parts arranged like fingers on a hand (Holmes, 1979).  +
A life cycle characterized by a diploid adult stage producing haploid gametes by meiosis, the zygote forming by fusion of a pair of gametes (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
seabird specific?  +
Development without a larval stage  +
Potential for dispersal provided by one or more larval/juvenile stages, recorded in m, km.  +
The distance over which the adult organism is able to roam, travel or disperse; the greatest potnetial or recorded distance. Does not acknowledge limitations due to geography, hydrography, or behavioural (territorial) constraints.  +
Fields and traits that describe the distribution of the species.  +
Seabird specific?  +
Second free-swimming larvae (after the auricularia) in the Holothuroidea. It is characterized by a series of flagellated rings around a barrel-shaped body (Ruppert & Barnes, 1994; Stachowitsch, 1992).  +
A species which is very abundant or present at high densities or relatively high densities.  +
Double cone (Olenina ''et al.'', 2006)  +
Organisms that live vertically in the sediment, typically heads-up at the surface, and that ingest particles at the surface and egest them as faeces at depth in the sediment (adapted from Kristensen ''et al.'', 2012).  +
An organism whose movement is dependent on wind or water currents (e.g. ''Aurelia'').  +
seabird, cetaceans?  +
Free-swimming larva of Echinoidea, distinguished by six pairs of arms, supported by skeletal rods (see Ruppert & Barnes, 1994; Stachowitsch, 1992).  +
Collection of traits relating to species ecology  +
Traits relating to how a species interacts with it's surrounding environment and other associated species.  +
Traits that describe an physiological and environmental tolerance of an organism  +
Parasitic on the outer surface of its host (adapted from Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
Description of where fertilized eggs are placed or held  +
Size (diameter) of macrogamete (egg or ovum) in µm, mm, cm.  +
for example the egg sacs of copepods - carried by adult  +
A measure of height above chart datum, recorded in metres  +
A marine inlet or harbour fully enclosed from the open sea except at the entrance, not normally open to the sea at two ends. The connection with the open sea is normally less restricted than is the case with lagoons (Hiscock, 1996).  +
Forms or resembles a crust over a substratum or other organisms  +
A taxon is Endangered when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the criteria A to E for Endangered (see Section V), and it is therefore considered to be facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild.  +
Parasitic within the tissues or organs of its host (see Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
A plant living within another plant (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998)  +
internal structure that supports the body of an organism  +
Living within the body of an animal (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
Broad descriptors of the major environmental regions  +
Position relative to substratum or fluid medium (air/water).  +
Young, free-swimming medusa stage typically developing from attached scyphistoma or occasionally direct from a planula. Umbrella typically composed of eight, bifurcated arms (Stachowitsch, 1992).  +
Living on the surface of the seabed.  +
An animal living on the surface of the substratum.  +
A plant living on the surface of the substratum.  +
Living on the surface of rock or other hard inorganic substrata  +
The photic zone, includes the open ocean influenced by light.  The lower boundary is dependent on the depth of light penetration and is generally regarded extend to ca 200 m in depth.  +
An organism that moves over the surface of sediment or lives at the sediment / water interface.  +
Living on the surface of a living plant but not parasitic upon it.  +
Living on the exterior of a living animal but not parasitic upon it.  +
Species that have been subject to an eradication event and have been confirmed as eradicated.  +
Species that have been subject to an eradication event but have not been confirmed as eradicated.  +
Main visible parts of organism stand upright and above the surface of the substratum.  +
Species that have become established in their introduced range.  +
Species that have become established in their introduced range and are known to be increasing in abundance and expanding their range.  +
Species that have become established in their introduced range but are not known to be spreading aggressively.  +
Downstream part of a river where it widens to enter the sea; often with significant freshwater influence and predominantly comprising sediment habitats.  +
1) The region between the highest and lowest extent of the tide on the shore. 2) The shore zone between the lowest and highest seasonal water level in a lake (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998)  +
Pharynx can be everted to engulf and/or seize food items  +
A rigid external structure that supports and/or protects the body of an organism and that is mainly completely secreted by the epidermis (derived from Lawrence 2005).  +
1) Coasts which face the prevailing wind but which have a degree of shelter because of extensive shallow areas offshore, offshore obstructions, or a restricted (less than 90°) window to open water. These sites are not generally exposed to large waves or regular swell. 2) Open coasts facing away from prevailing winds but with a long fetch, and where strong winds are frequent.  +
Common in OSPAR Regions II, III, IV  +
Egg/sperm meet and fertilize externally to parental individuals, tissues or confines of their bodies, but within the fluid medium  +
A built-structure inhabited by an organism and essential to its survival, but not part of its body, composed of hardened (either rigid or flexible) secretions, with or without the addition of embedded particles, with those particles either selectively collected from the environment or passively becoming glued during formation (pers. comm. Read, G.).  +
A taxon is Extinct when there is no reasonable doubt that the last individual has died. A taxon is presumed Extinct when exhaustive surveys in known and/or expected habitat, at appropriate times (diurnal, seasonal, annual), throughout its historic range have failed to record an individual. Surveys should be over a time frame appropriate to the taxon’s life cycle and life form.  +
A taxon is Extinct in the Wild when it is known only to survive in cultivation, in captivity or as a naturalized population (or populations) well outside the past range. A taxon is presumed Extinct in the Wild when exhaustive surveys in known and/or expected habitat, at appropriate times (diurnal, seasonal, annual), throughout its historic range have failed to record an individual. Surveys should be over a time frame appropriate to the taxon’s life cycle and life form.  +
Species that were present but have been declared extinct.  +
Open coastlines which face into the prevailing wind and receive both wind-driven waves and oceanic swell without any offshore obstructions such as islands or shallows for several thousand kilometres and where deep water is close to the shore (50 m depth contour within about 300 m).  +
Fully enclosed coasts with a fetch of no more than about 3 km.  +
The FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Statistics and Information Branch (FIAS) collates world capture and aquaculture production statistics at either the species, genus, family or higher taxonomic levels in 2 346 statistical categories (2019 data release) referred to as species items. ASFIS list of species includes 12 771 species items selected according to their interest or relation to fisheries and aquaculture. For each species item stored in a record, codes (ISSCAAP group, taxonomic and 3-alpha) and taxonomic information (scientific name, author(s), family, and higher taxonomic classification) are provided. An English name is available for most of the records, and about one third of them have also a French and Spanish name. Information is also provided about the availability of fishery production statistics on the species item in the FAO databases.  +
Dense aggregation of animals that visually dominate the seabed or shore such as brittlestars (e.g. ''Ophiothrix fragilis'' ) or mussels (e.g. ''Mytilus edulis'').  +
Descriptors of types of unusual or unique types of substratum or habitat  +
Number of eggs reported produced per female per reproductive cycle.  +
Traits related to how an organism feeds, the food type and feeding method exhibited by a species  +
Description of the apparatus (mechanism) used to collect/capture food  +
A description of how the oganism gathers food, and from where  +
Description of the location of fertilization, whereby in animals/macroalgae a gametes are fertilized or in plants pollination occurs.  +
Specialist e.g. sea squirts  +
Slender and thread-like (Kozloff, 1996).  +
Particle size 0.063 - 0.5 mm (Hiscock, 1996)  +
This is where an invasive species is used as a bait resulting in its introduction into a new area/region.  +
Where in the process of stocking a fishery an associated invasive species is unintentionally introduced into a new area/region.  +
Where an invasive species is unintentionally introduced into a new area/region as a result of the movement of fishery related products or materials (ie: not the direct movement of fisheries stock).  +
Where an invasive species is intentionally introduced into a new area/region for the purpose of stocking/replenishing/establishing a fishery industry based on the invasive species.  +
A form of asexual multiplication involving division of the body into two or more parts each or all of which can grow into new individuals (Barnes ''et al.'', 1993).  +